From goods to service(s): Divergences and convergences of logics Stephen L. Vargo , Robert F. Lusch

Résumé :

There are two logics or mindsets from which to consider and motivate a transition from goods to service(s). The first, “goods-dominant (G-D) logic”, views services in terms of a type of (e.g., intangible) good and implies that goods production and distribution practices should be modified to deal with the differences between tangible goods and services. The second logic, “service-dominant (S-D) logic”, considers service – a process of using ones resources for the benefit of and in conjunction with another party – as the fundamental purpose of economic exchange and implies the need for a revised, service-driven framework for all of marketing. This transition to a service-centered logic is consistent with and partially derived from a similar transition found in the business-marketing literature — for example, its shift to understanding exchange in terms value rather than products and networks rather than dyads. It also parallels transitions in other sub-disciplines, such as service marketing. These parallels and the implications for marketing theory and practice of a full transition to a service-logic are explored.

  • Il existe deux logiques ou mentalités à partir desquelles il est possible d’envisager et de motiver une transition de biens en services. La première, la «logique dominante sur les biens», considère les services comme un type de bien (par exemple, incorporel) et implique que les pratiques de production et de distribution de biens doivent être modifiées pour tenir compte des différences entre biens et services tangibles. La seconde logique, la «logique dominante de service», considère le service – un processus d’utilisation de ressources au profit et en liaison avec une autre partie – comme objectif fondamental de l’échange économique et implique la nécessité d’un service révisé. cadre axé sur l’ensemble du marketing. Cette transition vers une logique centrée sur le service est cohérente et partiellement dérivée d’une transition similaire à celle trouvée dans la littérature spécialisée dans le marketing commercial – par exemple, sa transition vers une compréhension de l’échange en termes de valeur plutôt que de produits et de réseaux plutôt que de dyades. Cela correspond également aux transitions dans d’autres sous-disciplines, telles que le marketing de services. Ces parallèles et les implications pour la théorie et la pratique du marketing d’une transition complète vers une logique de service sont explorés.

Mots clefs :

Good domination, service domination , marketing business, experience, co-creation

Développement :

Over the last several decades, leading-edge firms, as well as many business scholars and consultants, have advocated the need for refocusing substantial firm activity or transforming the entire firm orientation from producing output, primarily manufactured goods, to a concern with service(s) (see, e.g., Davies, Brady, & Hobday, 2007; Gebauer & Fleisch, 2007)

One views goods (tangible output embedded with value) as the primary focus of economic exchange and “services” (usually plural) as either (1) a restricted type of (intangible) good (i.e., as units of output) or (2) an add-on that enhances the value of a good. We (Vargo & Lusch, 2004a; Lusch & Vargo, 2006a) call this logic goods-dominant (G-D) logic.

The second logic considers “service” (singular) – a process of doing something for another party – in its own right, without reference to goods and identifies service as the primary focus of exchange activity. We (Vargo & Lusch, 2004a, 2006) call this logic service-dominant (S-D) logic. In S-D logic, goods continue to play an important, service-delivery role, at least in a subset of economic exchange.

In S-D logic, service is defined as the application of competences (knowledge and skills) for the benefit of another party.

It represents a shift from thinking about value in terms of operand resources — usually tangible, static resources that require some action to make them valuable – to operant resources – usually intangible, dynamic resources that are capable of creating value.

The locus of value creation, then, moves from the “producer” to a collaborative process of co-creation between parties.

Thus, in S-D logic, goods are still important; however, service is superordinate.

That is, efficiency and effectiveness can be seen as complementary — effectiveness is necessary before efficiency has relevance but efficiency is often both a component (buyer’s perspective) of effectiveness and also necessary for long-term effectiveness (seller’s perspective). Thus, effectiveness can be seen as a path to efficiency. Industrial marketers have been at the forefront of the exploration of these dualities (e.g., Dittrich et al., 2006; Hakansson & Ford, 2002); S-D logic provides a potential foundation for transcendence

Even without a reoriented theory of the market and marketing, S-D logic suggests the following transitional shifts to move from a product focus to a service focus (see Table 1)

We believe that S-D logic can serve as a foundation for a sounder theory of markets and marketing that can, in turn, reduce the divide between academic and applied marketing and thus inform marketing practitioners in their desire to develop a true service focus.

Nous avons remarqué qu’il existait deux types de logiques. Les biens et les «services» soit un type restreint de bien (intangible)  est  la logique dominante des biens (G-D). La seconde logique soit le «service» identifie le service comme le centre principal de l’échange et est appelé une logique à dominante service. Dans la logique S-D, les biens continuent de jouer un rôle important dans la prestation de services. Ainsi, les biens sont toujours importants; Cependant, le service est supérieur.

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