Customer retention management processes: A quantitative study

Lawrence Ang & Francis Buttle (2006): Customer retention management processes, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 40 Issue 1/2, p83-99. 17p. DOI: 10.1108/03090560610637329

Keywords Customer retention, Complaints

Ang, Lawrence and Buttle Francis explain the current state of importance given to customer retention and explore the management processes, businesses associate with. They examine the impact of customer retention planning, budgeting and accountability, and a documented complaints-handling process. They compare the significance of having a customer retention planning process and a documented complaints-handling process. They point to the existence of the latter as the strongest reason behind great customer retention.

  • At the start, authors mention customer retention goals are common in businesses with a focus on relationship marketing. They explore the current customer retention approach of different types of businesses. It is acknowledged that customer retention plays an important role in profit.
  • They conclude that a documented complaints-handling process enables businesses to improve problem resolution, and better identify trends and causes of complaints. Excellence at these processes improves customer’s residual value and prevent systemic or repetitive complaints.

Initially, they state that even a small increase in customer retention rate can improve customer net present value up to 95% in different types of businesses. Additionally, it is recognized that customer retention has more impact on the value of a business than changes in discounts rates or cost of capital. Industrial and service markets rely more heavily on customer management, being business-to-business relationships the most stable and lasting ones. Moreover, an excellent customer retention can also decrease customer replacement cost.

They identify that precise planning processes which involve obligations from executives and budgeting are linked to superior business performance, and over half of businesses believe customer retention to be more important than acquisition. They express that bad managing of customer churn leads to decrease in the business’ value. In addition, writers express that complainants whose issues were resolved have higher satisfaction rates and are less-likely to switch.

It is revealed by the writers that, despite the evidence of its importance, not enough attention is given to developing a proper customer retention plan. It is suggested that businesses either do not think about customer profitability or are unable to properly measure it. Conventional management approaches tell it is necessary to build a customer retention plan, implement a budget and provide accountability. Nevertheless, the authors did not find enough evidence to support this claim.

Finally, it is concluded that excellent customer retention is linked to the presence of a documented customer complaints-handling process, improving not only the customer retention but employee performance and business’ processes as well. A documented complaints-management process enables organizations to improve their ability to resolve customers’ disputes. It enables companies to identify trends more accurately and find factors generating problems. Organizations with well-established documented complaints-handling processes have a tendency to have explicit customer retention plans, use a formal switching model to predict churn, have an employee in charge of customer retention and look for signals of imminent customer defection yet, none of these variables are statistically significant for exceptional customer retention performance.

In conclusion, it is explained that customer retention plan, budget and accountability are not linked to a great customer retention, unlike common management approaches might suggest. Only documented complaints-handling processes showed a strong correlation with low customer churn.

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Exploring decisive factors affecting an organization’s SaaS adoption: A case study

Wu, Wei-Wen, Lan, Lawrence W. & Lee, Yu-Ting (2011): Exploring decisive factors affecting an organization’s SaaS adoption: A case study, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 31, Issue 6, p.556-563. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2011.02.007

Keywords: Software as a Service (SaaS), Adoption, Trust, Decision Making Trial and Evaluation, Laboratory (DEMATEL)

Wu, Wei-Wen, Lan, Lawrence W. & Lee, Yu-Ting start by defining cloud services as a group of service solutions involving computing, data storage, and software available through the Internet where customers do not own or operate the service provided. The cloud process all the information given by the user to then send back its results. This model allows organizations to focus on its core business and lessens the burden of developing and maintaining complicated IT systems.

Cloud computing can be divided into three categories: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). Nevertheless, SaaS is regarded as potentially the most important model for scaling IT performance. Despite this information, organizations are still hesitant to use it due to trust concerns. It is stated that SaaS has an attractive growth potential as SMEs have yet to start using SaaS extensively. Among the reasons why it is not yet widely-spread in this segment, concern about data security represents the stronger factor. Therefore, focusing on trust to highlight perceived benefits and diminish perceived risks is the approach recommended for all marketing efforts. Nonetheless, adopting new technologies or services solutions is still commonly seen as a way to improve competitiveness in an organization.

Trust plays a decisive role in the acceptance of perceived benefits and the lessening of perceived risks for this business model. This is why, the authors propose a solution framework where they treat perceived benefits and perceived risks as two different arguments in order to develop a visible cause-effect graph to aid organizations in their decision making towards SaaS. They define trust as the willingness to behave risky in uncertain situations as it is believed that expected benefits might overcome the negative aspects.

Although trust is a main driver for the accomplishment of any e-commerce, perceived risks, technical and subjective, act as barriers for the adoption of this service, while perceived benefits represent a motivation for adoption. The study aims to select the most important set of perceived benefits and perceived risks for SaaS adoption using the DEMATEL model to conduct a cause-effect analysis. To do so, they use a case study centering on a Taiwanese technological company. Out of all the factors studied, it is concluded that an easy and fast deployment of the service, and its potential in the future are the most relevant benefits to business. On the other hand, data locality and security, and authentication and authorization are mentioned as the most important perceived risks preventing adoption. These perceived risks are, however, subjective rather than technical, as organizations commonly dislike the lack of ownership and control on cloud computing deployment.

These results tell us that SaaS businesses should emphasize the subjective but strategical aspects of delegating security control to SaaS. The writers divide two types of SaaS customers: the organizations focusing on perceived benefits, where SaaS vendors can focus on their strategical competitive advantage, and the organizations focusing on perceived risks, where vendors should reduce security concerns by communicating best practices of successful businesses using SaaS, and expert recommendations.

 

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Integrating marketing communications: new findings, new lessons and new ideas

Rajeev Batra and Kevin Lane Keller (2016): Integrating Marketing Communications: New Findings, New Lessons, and New Ideas. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 80 Issue 6, p122-145. 24p. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jm.15.0419

Keywords: marketing communications, marketing integration, integrated marketing communications, traditional media, digital media

New media has impacted consumers in a drastic way, changing media usage patterns and disturbing how information is sought, where consumers look for it, and how the decide to choose a brand. Nowadays, increase of popularity in multitasking has led customers to a continuous state of partial attention. Consumers have a different dynamic when taking a decision to purchase due to search engines, blogs, brand websites, etc. These new tools lead consumers to actively seek information rather than passively receive it from traditional media.

The current situation has lead word-of-mouth and brand advocacy to be vital to current communication strategies, however, this has reduced marketer’s control over the information that arrives to customers. Nevertheless, these new trends improve personalization, content, location and timing of the communications and opens new possibilities for accomplishing their objectives as marketers have a wider selection of communication possibilities.

Due to the numerous communication channels, marketers must think about the message as well as the context of their communication or “interactive effects”. It is mentioned that there is interaction between new and old media such as TV, social media, mobiles, off-line word-of-mouth, etc.

To adapt to the new situation, the author proposes two communication models:

  1. “Bottoms-up” communication matching model: identifies communication options with the best ability to satisfy a customer at different stages of the consumer decision journey.
  2. “Top-down” communication optimization model: evaluates the design of a marketing communication program with relevant criteria to how it is integrated to short-term sales goals and long-term brand equity.

As for integrating marketing communications, two types of approaches are discussed. First, the micro approaches using consumer psychology and information processing principles to explore the impact of multi-media campaigns in different communication goals. Then, a second approach using econometric techniques to assess the effect of multi-media campaigns at brand-level. Additionally, consistency, complementarity and cross-effect among media and communication options are mentioned as the three most important factor for a successful integrated marketing communications program.

A new consumer decision journey circle is mentioned. The new concept begins by the consideration of an initial set of brands which the potential user forms a first consideration, then selects a brand based on this knowledge to finally, use the product or service and create post-purchase experiences that will shape future interactions with the brand.

Later, an analysis of each media and its impact on the effectiveness of the communication is discussed:

  • Traditional media: It is still relevant even today. It is mentioned that the message communicates is more important than repetition. Nevertheless, advertising effects vary on the channel used.
  • Newer online media includes:
    • Search ads: users who search for specific and less popular keywords are said to be closer to a purchase decision. Allowing paid search ads to potentially increase click-through rate and conversion rates
    • Display ads: This type of advertisement can increase visitation to business-websites for most users in the purchase funnel. Nevertheless, this has considerable less impact on potential customers who already visited the website but failed to engage.
    • Websites: This channel can be more effective when it matches its potential customer’s intellectual style. Additionally, age, gender and geographical location segmentation can also affect success.
    • E-mail: Increases purchases three more times than social media and personalization of said emails is shown to improve its effectiveness.
    • o Social Media: Brand-generated content can positively affect valence, receptivity and customer susceptibility. Nevertheless, social media must not focus on a single platform as this can lead to misleading brand sentiments.
    • Mobile: Users in this media tend to go directly to a brand’s website or app. Users also make more purchases driven by impulse than product features. Additionally, coupons and ads have shown to be the most effective when personalized to the user’s taste, location and time of the day.

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Les interactions entre le site internet d’une marque et ses clients sont aujourd’hui des moyens de rendre l’expérience utilisateur positive, et de fait, de construire une relation à long terme entre les deux parties. Facilité la recherche d’informations, l’acte d’achat ou l’utilisation d’un service sont autant d’enjeux digitaux pour une entreprise. L’objectif de cet article est donc de comprendre les tenants et les aboutissants de l’expérience client en ligne dans un contexte d’achat.

Nous verrons donc dans ce résumé 3 points importants :

  1. La compréhension de l’expérience client en ligne en situation d’achat
  2. Le cadre conceptuel de l’expérience client en ligne
  3. Les antécédents de l’expérience client en ligne

L’émergence d’internet en tant que canal de distribution et de communication a permis aux entreprises d’augmenter les interactions possibles avec les clients. Qu’il s’agisse de recherche d’informations sur l’entreprise et ses produits, l’utilisation de services en ligne, l’achat en ligne ou les réseaux sociaux, tous permettent aux entreprises de créer une véritable communauté.

L’acte d’achat en ligne en est donc renforcé et s’explique par trois phénomènes principaux :

  • L’augmentation constante du taux d’adoption et de pénétration d’internet
  • L’augmentation des sites proposant l’achat en ligne
  • Le développement des technologies facilitant l’achat en ligne (M-commerce, retargeting…)

Ainsi les progrès technologiques dans les appareils mobiles ont permis au client un accès plus direct et instantané à l’information, la communication, et l’achat en ligne. Un certain nombre d’études ont exploré les impact sociaux et comportementaux de cette technologie mobile (Matsuda 2006; Palen et al., 2001), tandis que d’autres ont examiné les facteurs qui influent sur l’adoption de ces nouvelles interfaces client (Lee and Benbasat 2003; Sarker and Wells 2003; Varshney et Vetter 2002). Le travail de Lee et Benbasat (2003) est utile ici, car il suggère des façons dont les consommateurs peuvent enrichir leur expérience d’achat en profitant de l’accès instantané à Internet créé par cette technologie. Ils proposent sept éléments clés qui améliorent l’expérience des consommateurs en matière de M-commerce. Il s’agit notamment du degré de personnalisation, de communication, de connectivité et de contenu.

Il existe un nombre significatif d’études en ligne qui peuvent aider à identifier les conducteurs probables de l’expérience client en ligne (OCE). Ceux-ci se concentrent principalement sur 3 aspects :

  • La performance et l’efficacité du site web.
  • Le comportement, la recherche et l’achat en ligne des consommateurs.
  • L’expérience du service en ligne.

Ces trois domaines de la littérature démontrent que les consommateurs interagissent avec Internet dans une large gamme d’activités, ce qui entraîne un certain nombre d’expériences différentes et, en fin de compte, des expériences. Il a été suggéré que les avantages offerts au client en ligne modifient l’équilibre des compétences dans la relation organisation-client, créant un client plus puissant et proactif. Le but de cet article est donc de fournir un examen complet et une critique d’une gamme variée de littérature contemporaine qui informe notre compréhension des antécédents et des conséquences d’une OCE efficace dans un contexte d’achat.

 

  1. Le concept d’OCE

Comme expliqué précédemment les clients ont aujourd’hui une large gamme de possibilités dans leurs activités en ligne. L’expérience en ligne devient donc un concept important pour les responsables marketing de l’environnement B2C en ligne.

La section suivante viendra comparer l’expérience client à l’expérience client en ligne(OCE) et posera le cadre conceptuel de l’OCE.

La première différence clé entre les deux contexte est le degré de contact personnel. L’interaction personnelle fournit une source de contact très riche à partir de laquelle des réponses subjectivent résulteront

Deuxièmement, des différences existent par rapport à la manière dont les informations sont fournies.
Le contexte en ligne permet une information très riche, alors qu’en face à face, il est possible que ce soit plus limité.

La troisième distinction est la période. Les clients peuvent acheter en ligne n’importe quand, n’importe où et dans un cadre qui s’adapte à eux. Dans le contexte de face-à-face, les interactions avec les clients sont définies par les heures d’ouverture du lieu de vente.

Enfin, des différences peuvent exister en termes de présentation de la marque. En ligne, la marque est présentée de manière principalement audiovisuelle, alors que hors ligne, les entreprises disposent de tout une gamme de possibilités qui lui permette d’être identifiable.

  1. Un cadre conceptuel de l’OCE

L’importance de l’expérience utilisateur est motivée par le besoin de l’organisation d’augmenter les offres de produits et / ou services de base

Afin de se différentier, particulièrement sur des marchés concurrentiels et saturés, la distinction entre l’offre de produit tangibles et la valeur d’une expérience distincte est donc primordiale.
Meyer et Schwager définissent l’expérience client comme « La réponse interne et subjective des clients à un contact direct ou indirect avec une entreprise. »

Carbone et Haeckel (1994) suggèrent également qu’une expérience client se déroule chaque fois qu’un client interagit avec une organisation et ses activités. Ils définissent CE comme « l’impression à emporter formée par la rencontre des gens avec les produits, les services et les entreprises »

Ainsi le lien entre la satisfaction client et l’expérience client bien réel et a donné naissance au concept de satisfaction du client électronique qui est distinct de l’expérience et défini comme : « L’évaluation psychologique du client et de l’expérience accumulée du processus d’achat et de l’utilisation du produit expérience. » Cette définition met en exergue le caractère psychologique de l’expérience utilisateur, par conséquent l’expérience peut être supposée multidimensionnelle et individuelle pour chaque client.

Des auteurs tels que Frow et Payne (2007) on identifiés trois états qui constituent une expérience :

  • Le rationnel
  • Le cognitif
  • L’émotif

 

En termes d’élément cognitif, Frow et Payne (2007) identifient le rôle du traitement interne de la stimulation entrante à l’individu. Ils proposent que le client participe à l’examen de l’information reçue par rapport aux expériences passées, présentes et potentiellement futures. Cette approche est Compatible avec le modèle de traitement de l’information cognitive (IP), qui est bien développé comme une approche de l’explication du comportement d’achat du consommateur

(Bettman et al., 1998). Cela suggère qu’une partie de l’évaluation de la rencontre du client sera relativement dirigée et impliquera un traitement rationnel de l’information concernant la rencontre qui est finalement stockée dans la mémoire.

Cependant, l’idée du client comme un être rationnel et cognitif peut être considérée comme incomplète (Shiv et Fedorikhin 1999). Hansen (2005) suggère que la reconnaissance à la fois cognitive et émotionnelle, et l’interaction entre les deux, est une approche plus appropriée. Le rôle des réponses affectives dans le comportement des consommateurs est maintenant bien établi (Bagozzi et al., 1999, Holbrook et Hirschman, 1982). Hansen (2005) définit l’émotion comme une réponse à un stimulus et, dans le contexte en ligne, le stimulus serait les composants du site Web auquel le client est exposé.

En termes CE, il a été suggéré que le traitement affectif et émotionnel mène à des associations à plus long terme dans la mémoire (Edvardsson 2005). L’accent mis sur la composante émotionnelle de la CE est très évident dans les discussions académiques et praticiennes sur le sujet de CE (Holbrook et Hirschman, 1982; Gentile et al., 2007; Pine et Gilmore 1999; Schmitt 2003; Shaw, 2002). La littérature OCE est limitée à l’heure actuelle et est incompatible en termes de définitions et d’explications du concept. En développant le concept d’OCE, nous supposons également qu’il est constitué d’états cognitifs et affectifs. La raison en est que les facteurs cognitifs et affectifs ont également été identifiés comme des états internes dans les modèles de comportement d’achat en ligne (Eroglu et al., 2001).

  1. Les antécédents de l’expérience utilisateur en ligne

De nombreuses revues de littératures se sont intéressées aux concepts qui influencent l’expérience client en ligne.

Tout d’abord, le rôle de la propriété intellectuelle, utilisée dans les étapes cruciales de la recherche et l’évaluation au cours des décisions d’achat des clients. Le traitement de l’information concerne la façon dont les individus utilisent leurs sens internes et leurs processus mentaux pour donner du sens à leur action.
Il y a également les concepts de connaissances antérieures et d’expériences antérieures. On parle ici de la connaissance préalable d’un produit ou service, qui est un facteur clé dans l’efficacité d’une recherche, et fournit la base de l’évaluation de nouvelles informations entrantes.

La littérature fournit des explications utiles sur le lien entre les connaissances antérieures et l’expérience antérieure qui fonctionnent pendant la recherche et la navigation de l’information et la façon dont elles affectent les intentions futures en matière d’activité en ligne.

Chih-Chung et Chang (2005) proposent qu’une boucle de rétroaction circulaire ait lieu pendant la navigation en ligne. Les client évaluent en permanence leur expérience en ligne en utilisant les différentes fonctionnalités du site Web, notamment les informations sur les produits, les modalités de paiement, les délais de livraison, les services fournis, la navigation et la confidentialité des données.
Les expériences passées affectent les sentiments de risque et la probabilité de continuer à utiliser un site de vente en ligne.

Ainsi, les expériences passées fournissent au client une référence à partir de laquelle les attentes sont définies et des évaluations sont réalisées. C’est la raison pour laquelle la propriété intellectuelle est inclue dans le cadre de l’OCE.

Deux autres facteurs apparaissent régulièrement dans la littérature de la consommation en ligne. Il s’agit de facilité d’utilisation perçue (PEOU) et de l’utilité perçue (PU). Ces deux concepts sont identifiés dans les modèles d’adoption de la technologie et également été trouvés pour influencer l’adoption des achat en ligne. La perception de la facilité d’utilisation d’un site est fortement liée à une expérience en ligne positive. Ces concepts permettent ainsi de faire ressortir des caractéristiques d’un site facile d’utilisation :

 

  • Des écrans épurés
  • Organisation claire
  • Flux logique
  • Navigation facile

En 2005 Cao et Al. développent un cadre pour évaluer la qualité d’un site et les déterminants perçus dans la facilité d’utilisation. Les fonctionnalités les plus importantes, qui améliorent l’expérience et conduisent le client à un état émotionnel positif sont :

  • L’installation de recherche
  • La réactivité du site
  • La capacité multimédia
  • La précision et la pertinence de l’information.

Le troisième ensemble d’antécédents proposés d’OCE concerne les compétences (SK) et le contrôle perçu (PC). L’acquisition de compétences est la capacité du client à utiliser Internet avec compétence (Klein et Ford 2002). Cela a été spécifiquement identifié comme la capacité de naviguer et d’interagir avec un site Web et relie fortement l’état cognitif du client. En supposant que l’apprentissage par la réalisation est pertinent pour le développement des compétences sur Internet, il est proposé que la capacité s’amplifie avec l’expérience au fil du temps (Lehto et al., 2006). Les niveaux élevés d’utilisation et donc l’expérience conduiront à des niveaux plus élevés de capacité et créeront des connaissances et une expérience antérieures.

D’autres recherches plus récentes de la littérature se rapportent aux avantages perçus par le client de l’utilisation d’un site web en termes de bénéfices perçus et de plaisir.
L’expérience de vente en ligne est étroitement associée aux attitudes envers Internet en tant que moyen de vente et ses avantages reconnus. Les preuves suggèrent qu’une OCE positive résulte de la création d’une expérience à la fois amusante et agréable, ainsi que de générer des sentiments de contrôle, et donc de la liberté, pour le client (Wolfinbarger et Gilly 2001). Ce domaine de la littérature n’est pas tellement développé, et il existe des possibilités d’explorer plus complètement la relation entre les états hédoniques et enrichissants de l’OCE avec le besoin de sentiments de contrôle.

 

Enfin le dernier domaine identifié dans la littérature et permettant de comprendre l’expérience utilisateur en ligne concerne les concepts jumeaux de risque et de confiance. Ces deux concepts sont étroitement liés et nécessites d’être étudiés conjointement.
Le concept de confiance a été largement reconnu dans les modèles qui recherchent à expliquer les attitudes, comportements et les intentions des consommateurs en ligne.
Jin et Park (2006) proposent que la confiance soit le résultat d’un certain nombre d’attributs de l’environnement d’achat. Ce modèle affirme donc que la confiance et la satisfaction sont des variables de résultats qui, indépendamment et ensemble, ont une influence directe sur la fidélisation de la clientèle.
Une approche alternative considère la confiance comme un facteur contributif.

 

 

Tan et Setherland (2004) considèrent la confiance comme un concept multidisciplinaire. C’est une approche psychologique de la confiance, ou cette dernière est considérée comme un « sentiment ou une croyance profondément arrachée ». Ainsi, dans cette perspective, on peut supposer que la confiance est un antécédent de l’expérience utilisateur en ligne, en proposant qu’elle influence l’état émotionnel résultant de l’expérience en ligne.

La vulnérabilité et la peur de l’inconnu sont souvent citées comme une composante contextuelle de la confiance et dans le contexte de l’expérience en ligne, qui peut être très faible sur le contexte personnel, cela s’accentue et conduit à un plus grand besoin de confiance.

Van der Heijden et al. (2003) suggèrent que les sentiments de confiance élevés réduisent les inquiétudes concernant des facteurs inconnus tels que la performance du produit ou la politique organisationnelle. En parallèle, McKnight et Chervany (2001), dans la modélisation d’une typologie de la confiance, identifient différents niveaux de confiance au sein du client en ligne. Il s’agit notamment de la confiance dans le «vendeur électronique» (interpersonnel), de la confiance dans le Web lui-même (institutionnel) et de la confiance en général dans d’autres (disposition).

 

Une gamme de facteurs de risque sont identifiés dans la littérature, les principaux étant le risque économique / financier, le risque de performance, le risque personnel / psychologique, le risque social, le risque physique et le risque de perte de temps (Bart et al. 2005; Cas 2002; Chen et Dubinsky 2003; Ha 2004; Huang et al., 2004). Chen et Dubinsky (2003) suggèrent que la compréhension du risque est important pour les spécialistes du marketing en ligne en raison de son lien avec la valeur du client.  Conclusion : Ce document traite des définition et le compréhension actuelle et de la notion d’expérience client et explore le concept nouvellement étendu d’OCE. Cette revue de littérature permet ainsi de développer un cadre conceptuel pour les tests futurs.
Ainsi un certain nombre de conclusion peuvent être dessinées :Tout d’abord il est important de retenir qu’il existe un lien étroit entre une expérience utilisateur en ligne positive et la satisfaction client. Les éléments liés à la satisfaction client sont nombreux.
Ensuite, un certain nombre de facteurs antécédents sont identifiés dans la littérature qui semblent avoir un effet direct et interactif sur l’expérience utilisateur en ligne. Il existe des preuves suggérant que des effets interactifs existent entre les antécédents individuels et leurs effets sur les résultats, le risque, les avantages et la valeur du client. Enfin, alors que la littérature fournit une base théorique solide pour comprendre les concepts clés qui sous-tendent les réponses de l’utilisateur en ligne, la prochaine étape du développement de la littérature devra progresser vers un niveau plus approfondi de la compréhension des états constitutifs de l’expérience utilisateur en ligne à savoir les états affectifs et cognitifs.

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Social media: The new hybrid element of thepromotion mix, Business Horizons

Mangold, G., Faulds, D. Social media: The new hybrid element of thepromotion mix, Business Horizons (2009) 52, 357-365

Mots clés Integrated marketing communications, Social media, Consumer-generated media, Promotion mix

Dans cet article, l’auteur développe l’argument qu’il faut utiliser les réseaux sociaux comme nouveau levier du Promotion Mix

Développement :

L’émergence des réseaux sociaux a permis a ce qu’une personne puisse communiquer à des milliers d’autres sur des produits et des entreprises.

L’impact des relations entre consommateurs a été donc grandement augmentée. Cet article argumente que les réseaux sociaux sont un élément hybride du promotion mix pare qu’il permet aux entreprises de communiquer avec leurs cconsommateurs et aux consommateurs dintéragir entre eux.

Les relations entre les consommateurs sur les réseaux peuvent être difficilement controlées et surveillées. Ce qui va a l’encontre des traditionelles méthodes de marketing ou une grande place est accordée au contrôle et à la certitude.

Conclusion :

Il faut donc apprendre à modeler les discussions des consommateurs de tels sorte à ce qu’il soit consistent et parle d’une même voix avec la mission de l’entreprise ainsi que ses valeurs.

Les méthodes qui peuvent être utilisées dans ce sens sont d’offrir aux consommateurs des plateformes sociales, et d’utiliser des blogs, des outils des réseaux sociaux et des outils promotionnels pour engager les consommateurs

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“Cashless” transactions: perceptions of money in mobile payments

Khan and Craig M (2009) “Cashless” transactions: perceptions of money in Mobile Payment. International Business and Economics review;1 (1) 23-32.

Keywords : Mobile payments, cashless transactions, money, debit cards, credit cards

Cet article démontre que de nombreuses études basés sur le “cashless transaction” c’est à dire le fait de payer par transaction électronique ou bien par un échange électronique affectent la perception de l’argent ainsi que le comportement d’achat. Il est ainsi démontré que lorsqu’un individu procède à un paiement par carte bancaire le volume et la valeur de ces achats sont augmentés.

Cet article démontre la notion de tangibilité du cash qui influence la perception de l’argent. Ainsi, Khan et Craig Lees expliquent en quoi sous les conditions du cash, il existe une conscience (le conscient et l’inconscient ) cette dernière a une possession de valeur transférée. Cette perception peut avoir un impact direct sur la perception de l’argent des gens et sur leur comportement d’achat.

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Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network

Fiche de lecture  :

Kempe, D., Kleinberg, J., Tardos, E. (2013), Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network

Mots clés : approximation algorithms, social networks, viral marketing, diffusion of innovations

Les auteurs ont mis en place des processus et algorithmes pour déterminer l’étendu de l’influence sur les réseaux sociaux. Ils tentent de déterminer quels algorithmes peuvent analyser comment l’influence se diffuse sur les réseaux sociaux et comment cibler des individus

Développement :

Les réseaux sociaux jouent un rôle clé dans la diffusion de l’information, des idées et de l’influence parmis les utilisateurs.

N’importe quelle idée peut apparaître sur les réseaux sociaux et elle peut soit disparaitre très vite ou se propager et marquer l’esprit collectif de la population.

Avec le Big Data collecté sur les réseaux sociauux, ont peut estimer avec quelle force des individus s’influencent et marketer un produit afin qu’il soit adopter par une grande partie d’un dit network. Les premisces du marketing Viral et de l’Influence marketing sont que en targettant quelques personnes influentes avec un contrat ou des produits gratuits on peut déclencher une cascade d’influence ou les influenceurs vont influencé leurs followers qui vont faire de même avec leurs followers et leurs amis, ainsi de suite, créant ainsi une vague d’influence qui se propage.

Conclusion : Afin que ce phénomène se produit, il faut réussir à cibler une poignée d’influenceur qui sont en adéquation parfaite avec les thèmes de la campagne, le produit et la marque.

Il faut que les followers voient dans ce relaie du produit par l’influenceur, un acte tout à fait naturel de part l’univers de celui-ci. La correspondace doit être parfaite notamment entre la base de followers de la marque et celle de l’influenceur

 

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Consumer Decision Making in Online Shopping Environments: The Effects of Interactive Decision Aids

Consumer Decision Making in Online Shopping Environments: The Effects of Interactive Decision Aids

Gerald Haübl • Valerie Trifts

Marketing Science 19, 1, 415-178

 

Mots clés : Consumer decision, Online shopping, Interactive decision aids,

Les possibilités offertes par internet ne sont aujourd’hui plus à démontrées et deux facteurx principaux en sont la cause :

L’augmentation drastique du nombre d’entreprises qui ont fait d’internet un superbe moyen de communiquer avec leurs clients potentiels d’une part, et l’adoption rapide par les clients d’internet en tant qu’outil d’achat ou de source d’information.

Cet article traitera particulièrement de l’achat en ligne et de l’interactivité qui découle de cet environnement.

Une des caractéristiques de l’environnement d’achat en ligne est qu’il offre au client beaucoup d’interactivité. Pour définir l’interactivité il est important de rappeler qu’elle se base sur la réciprocité et l’échange d’information, la disponibilité de l’information, la personnalisation du contenu ainsi que le feedback en temps réel.

Il est également important de bien différencier l’interactivité entres les personnes et l’interactivité entre les machines.

La première désigne comme son nom l’indique la faculté de d’interagir et de communiquer avec d’autres humains tandis que la deuxième désigne la capacité d’une personne à accéder à une base de données en ligne. C’est d’ailleurs le point central de cette étude.

Le postulat de base est que le comportement du consommateur dépend grandement du type d’interactivité proposé dans un environnement d’achat en ligne donné. Ces outils d’interactivité font ici référence à l’aide à la décision interactive mentionné dans le titre de l’article.

Ainsi, l’organisation de cet article est la suivante :

  1. Compréhension du processus de décision et de l’aide à la décision
  2. Compréhension des aides interactives dans le cadre des achats en ligne

 

 

Compréhension du processus de décision et de l’aide à la décision :

Les humains adaptent leurs stratégies de prise de décisions aux situations et à l’environnement. Payne en 1982, Shugan en 1980 et Bettman 1990 démontrent que les hommes cherchent à réduire l’effort cognitif associé à la prise de décision. Ainsi ils se conforment à une précision imparfaite de leurs décisions en retour d’une réduction de l’effort.
Ce rapport entre effort et précision entraine souvent la prise d’une décision satisfaisante. C’est particulièrement le cas lorsque les alternatives sont nuisibles ou difficiles à comparer, c’est-à-dire lorsque la compléxité de l’environnement de décision est élevée.

Ainsi lorsque l’homme fait face à ce genre d’environnement de décision complexe, il peut utiliser une technologie informatique d’aide à la décision. Ils effectuent des taches ou des fonctions de traitement d’informations distinctes. Le principe de motivation qui sous-tend les aides à la décision est que les tâches de traitement de l’information, à forte intensité de ressources, mais standard, sont effectuées par un système informatique, ce qui libère une partie de la capacité de traitement des décideurs humains. Le travail est donc partager entre l’humain et l’ordinateur.

Nous allons maintenant voir un aperçu général des aides à la décision interactive disponibles pour les consommateurs dans le but de faire des achats en ligne.

Compréhension des aides interactives dans le cadre de l’achat en ligne :

La technologie disponible pour la mise en œuvre de l’interactivité des machines dans les environnements commerciaux en ligne est une formidable opportunité pour une entreprise de pallier l’absence de contact physique avec les produits ainsi que l’absence d’interaction en face à face avec un vendeur.

Les aides à la décisions interactives peuvent prendre différentes formes allant des moteurs de recherche à vocation générale à l’agent sophistiqué. Une classification des agents d’achats interactifs repose sur la question de savoir si un outil es conçu pour aider un consommateur à déterminer ce qu’il faut acheter ou, ou il faut l’acheter.

Un phénomène bien connu concernant la prise de décision dans des environnements complexes est que les individus sont souvent incapables d’évaluer toutes les alternatives disponibles en profondeur avant de faire un choix.

Dans le cadre de la décision d’achat le processus de décision le consommateur identifie dans un premier temps un large éventail de produits pertinent sans les examiner en profondeur et un sous ensemble qui comprend les solutions de rechange les plus pertinentes. Ensuite, il évalue ce dernier en profondeur en comparant les caractéristiques des produis avant de prendre sa décision d’achat.

Ainsi dans le cadre de l’aide à la décision, les outils interactifs peuvent apporter un soutien au consommateur dans les cas suivants :

  • Le dépistage initial des produits disponibles pour déterminer ceux qui valent le plus la peine d’être examinés en premiers.
  • La comparaison approfondie des produits sélectionnés avant de prendre la décision d’achat réelle.

Dans le cas de cette étude, il a été décidé de se concentrer sur deux outils interactifs.

L’agent de recommandation : Un outil de sélection de solution de rechange :

L’agent de recommandation a pour objectif de dépister initialement des alternatives disponibles dans une boutique en ligne. La RA utilisée dans la présente étude génère une liste personnalisée d’alternatives recommandées, dans lesquelles des alternatives sont décrites par leur marque et leur nom de modèle.

Une matrice de comparaison :

La matrice de comparaison est conçue pour permettre aux acheteurs de comparer les produits plus efficacement et de manière appropriée. Il permet au consommateur d’ajouter un produit à sa propre matrice afin que ses caractéristiques soient comparées aux autres produits de cette matrice. Ainsi le consommateur peut faire son choix en se basant uniquement sur certaines caractéristiques les plus pertinentes. Le format est interactif dans la mesure ou l’homme présélectionne et la machine facilite le processus de décision d’achat. De plus la machine met l’accent sur la mémorisation des produits et facilite donc le choix du consommateur.

Conclusion

Une des caractéristiques de l’environnement commercial électroniques est la quasi absence de limites physiques en ce qui concerne l’affichage du produit. Ainsi un commerce en ligne offrira un nombre extrêmement élevé de solutions de rechange dans une catégorie de produits.
C’est évidemment un plus pour le consommateur qui a plus de choix que dans un magasin physique.

Néanmoins, les ressources cognitives limitées du consommateur ne lui permettent pas de traiter les quantités potentiellement importantes d’informations sur ces alternatives.

C’est la raison pour laquelle les aides à la décisions interactives dont le but est d’aider à gérer efficacement et à capitaliser sur les grandes quantités d’informations à disposition dans un environnement d’achat en ligne.

Cette étude avait donc pour but d’étudier les effets des agents de recommandation ainsi que des matrices de comparaison. Le premier aide les consommateurs dans le dépistage initial des alternatives tandis que le second facilite les comparaisons approfondies d’alternatives sélectionnées.

Ainsi l’étude menée permet de mettre en exergue l’impact important sur la quantité de recherches d’informations sur les produits, la taille et la qualité des ensemble de considérations des acheteurs et la qualité de leurs décisions d’achat.

Partant du principe bien établit qu’il existe un compromis entre effort et précision inhérent à la prise de décision humaine dans les environnements traditionnels, nous pouvons constater que des outils tel que les agents de recommandations et les matrices de comparaison permettent au consommateur d’améliorer la qualité de sa décision tout en réduisant ses efforts. De fait cette étude démontre que les outils d’aides à la décision interactifs ont un impact stratégique sur la façon dont les consommateurs recherchent des informations sur les produits et prennent des décisions d’achat.

Mobile marketing research: The-state-of-art

Varnali, K., & Toker, A (2010). Mobile marketing research: The-state-of-art. International Journal of Information Management, 30 (2), 144-151

Mots clés : Mobile marketing, Mobile consumer behavior, Mobile marketing research, Mobile commerce, Mobile business

Depuis les années 2000, le canal Mobile est le canal publicitaire ultime car il permet aux entreprises d’être toujours présent auprès de ses consommateurs, à tout moment de la journée et n’importe où. Ainsi, les articles académiques sur le sujet se multiplient et s’accumulent.

Dans cet article, K. Varnali et A. Toker organisent et classifient la littérature existante sur le marketing mobile. Ils couvrent 255 articles, tirés de 82 journaux, publiés entre les années 2000 et 2008.

  • Dans un premier temps, nous allons identifier la méthode utilisée par K. Varnali et A. Toker pour identifier les articles en relation avec le marketing mobile.
  • Nous identifierons ensuite l’organisation et la classification de ces articles.

 

Développement :

Tous les articles sur le marketing mobile sont dispersés entre des journaux aux disciplines très variées comme le management, le marketing ou encore la technologie.
Ainsi pour répertorier tous les articles existants sur le marketing mobile, différentes bases de données en ligne ont été utilisées : ABI/INFORM, EBSCOhost, Emerald, IEEE Xplore, Inderscience Publishers, Science Direct and Wiley Interscience.
La recherche de littérature a été basée sur les mots clés suivants : « mobile commerce », « mobile marketing », « m-commerce », « m-marketing », « mobile advertising », « m-advertising », « mobile consumer », « m-consumer », « mobile business », « m-business », « mobile services », « m-services », « SMS marketing » and « Short Message Service Marketing ».
Tous les articles trouvés qui ne traitaient pas du marketing mobile ont été éliminés.

Ainsi, 255 articles, tirés de 82 journaux ont été sélectionnés.

Ensuite ces articles ont été classifiés selon leur orientation et leur point de vue. K. Varnali et A. Toker proposent donc la classification suivante :

  • Théorie (44 articles) : Les articles présents dans cette catégorie sont essentiellement des articles expliquant le concept de marketing mobile, la différence entre le e-commerce et le m-commerce et les dimensions du marché du mobile.
  • Stratégie (73 articles) : Cette catégorie est elle-même organisée en deux parties :
    • Stratégie : Les articles présents dans cette catégorie adoptent une perspective stratégique et se concentrent principalement sur les problèmes de design dans les business models des mobiles.
    • Applications : Dans cette catégorie se trouvent les articlent qui se concentrent sur les problèmes de design et les fonctionnalités des applications mobiles et spéculent sur leur potentiel.

 

  • Comportement du consommateur (131 articles) : Ces articles permettent de comprendre l’adoption du marketing mobile et la prédiction du comportement de consommateur face au marketing mobile.
    Cette catégorie est elle-même divisée en 5 catégories :

    • Le marketing mobile perçu par le consommateur
    • L’adoption et l’acceptation du m-marketing
    • Attitude des consommateurs face au marketing mobile
    • Le rôle de la confiance
    • La satisfaction et la loyauté du consommateur dans le contexte du marketing mobile.

 

  • Politique légale et publique (7 articles) : Les articles de cette catégorie se concentrent sur les problèmes politiques et légaux dans le contexte du marketing mobile. « Le mobile marketing en un problème important en terme de politique du consommateur à cause de deux caractéristiques de la technologie de communication mobile : (1) La permission d’identification des utilisateurs individuels dépend de l’appareil et de la technologie, cela menace la vie privée et la sécurité des informations personnelles, (2) les taux de pénétration élevés, en particulier chez les mineurs.

En conclusion, K. Varnali et A. Toker soulignent bien qu’il n’y a pas de classification communément accepté pour le marketing mobile et qu’il n’y a pas encore de « définition explicite du marketing mobile qui capture la véritable nature du phénomène ».

 

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