Integrating marketing communications: new findings, new lessons and new ideas

Rajeev Batra and Kevin Lane Keller (2016): Integrating Marketing Communications: New Findings, New Lessons, and New Ideas. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 80 Issue 6, p122-145. 24p. DOI:

Keywords: marketing communications, marketing integration, integrated marketing communications, traditional media, digital media

New media has impacted consumers in a drastic way, changing media usage patterns and disturbing how information is sought, where consumers look for it, and how the decide to choose a brand. Nowadays, increase of popularity in multitasking has led customers to a continuous state of partial attention. Consumers have a different dynamic when taking a decision to purchase due to search engines, blogs, brand websites, etc. These new tools lead consumers to actively seek information rather than passively receive it from traditional media.

The current situation has lead word-of-mouth and brand advocacy to be vital to current communication strategies, however, this has reduced marketer’s control over the information that arrives to customers. Nevertheless, these new trends improve personalization, content, location and timing of the communications and opens new possibilities for accomplishing their objectives as marketers have a wider selection of communication possibilities.

Due to the numerous communication channels, marketers must think about the message as well as the context of their communication or “interactive effects”. It is mentioned that there is interaction between new and old media such as TV, social media, mobiles, off-line word-of-mouth, etc.

To adapt to the new situation, the author proposes two communication models:

  1. “Bottoms-up” communication matching model: identifies communication options with the best ability to satisfy a customer at different stages of the consumer decision journey.
  2. “Top-down” communication optimization model: evaluates the design of a marketing communication program with relevant criteria to how it is integrated to short-term sales goals and long-term brand equity.

As for integrating marketing communications, two types of approaches are discussed. First, the micro approaches using consumer psychology and information processing principles to explore the impact of multi-media campaigns in different communication goals. Then, a second approach using econometric techniques to assess the effect of multi-media campaigns at brand-level. Additionally, consistency, complementarity and cross-effect among media and communication options are mentioned as the three most important factor for a successful integrated marketing communications program.

A new consumer decision journey circle is mentioned. The new concept begins by the consideration of an initial set of brands which the potential user forms a first consideration, then selects a brand based on this knowledge to finally, use the product or service and create post-purchase experiences that will shape future interactions with the brand.

Later, an analysis of each media and its impact on the effectiveness of the communication is discussed:

  • Traditional media: It is still relevant even today. It is mentioned that the message communicates is more important than repetition. Nevertheless, advertising effects vary on the channel used.
  • Newer online media includes:
    • Search ads: users who search for specific and less popular keywords are said to be closer to a purchase decision. Allowing paid search ads to potentially increase click-through rate and conversion rates
    • Display ads: This type of advertisement can increase visitation to business-websites for most users in the purchase funnel. Nevertheless, this has considerable less impact on potential customers who already visited the website but failed to engage.
    • Websites: This channel can be more effective when it matches its potential customer’s intellectual style. Additionally, age, gender and geographical location segmentation can also affect success.
    • E-mail: Increases purchases three more times than social media and personalization of said emails is shown to improve its effectiveness.
    • o Social Media: Brand-generated content can positively affect valence, receptivity and customer susceptibility. Nevertheless, social media must not focus on a single platform as this can lead to misleading brand sentiments.
    • Mobile: Users in this media tend to go directly to a brand’s website or app. Users also make more purchases driven by impulse than product features. Additionally, coupons and ads have shown to be the most effective when personalized to the user’s taste, location and time of the day.


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Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network

Fiche de lecture  :

Kempe, D., Kleinberg, J., Tardos, E. (2013), Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network

Mots clés : approximation algorithms, social networks, viral marketing, diffusion of innovations

Les auteurs ont mis en place des processus et algorithmes pour déterminer l’étendu de l’influence sur les réseaux sociaux. Ils tentent de déterminer quels algorithmes peuvent analyser comment l’influence se diffuse sur les réseaux sociaux et comment cibler des individus

Développement :

Les réseaux sociaux jouent un rôle clé dans la diffusion de l’information, des idées et de l’influence parmis les utilisateurs.

N’importe quelle idée peut apparaître sur les réseaux sociaux et elle peut soit disparaitre très vite ou se propager et marquer l’esprit collectif de la population.

Avec le Big Data collecté sur les réseaux sociauux, ont peut estimer avec quelle force des individus s’influencent et marketer un produit afin qu’il soit adopter par une grande partie d’un dit network. Les premisces du marketing Viral et de l’Influence marketing sont que en targettant quelques personnes influentes avec un contrat ou des produits gratuits on peut déclencher une cascade d’influence ou les influenceurs vont influencé leurs followers qui vont faire de même avec leurs followers et leurs amis, ainsi de suite, créant ainsi une vague d’influence qui se propage.

Conclusion : Afin que ce phénomène se produit, il faut réussir à cibler une poignée d’influenceur qui sont en adéquation parfaite avec les thèmes de la campagne, le produit et la marque.

Il faut que les followers voient dans ce relaie du produit par l’influenceur, un acte tout à fait naturel de part l’univers de celui-ci. La correspondace doit être parfaite notamment entre la base de followers de la marque et celle de l’influenceur


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Consumer Decision Making in Online Shopping Environments: The Effects of Interactive Decision Aids

Consumer Decision Making in Online Shopping Environments: The Effects of Interactive Decision Aids

Gerald Haübl • Valerie Trifts

Marketing Science 19, 1, 415-178


Mots clés : Consumer decision, Online shopping, Interactive decision aids,

Les possibilités offertes par internet ne sont aujourd’hui plus à démontrées et deux facteurx principaux en sont la cause :

L’augmentation drastique du nombre d’entreprises qui ont fait d’internet un superbe moyen de communiquer avec leurs clients potentiels d’une part, et l’adoption rapide par les clients d’internet en tant qu’outil d’achat ou de source d’information.

Cet article traitera particulièrement de l’achat en ligne et de l’interactivité qui découle de cet environnement.

Une des caractéristiques de l’environnement d’achat en ligne est qu’il offre au client beaucoup d’interactivité. Pour définir l’interactivité il est important de rappeler qu’elle se base sur la réciprocité et l’échange d’information, la disponibilité de l’information, la personnalisation du contenu ainsi que le feedback en temps réel.

Il est également important de bien différencier l’interactivité entres les personnes et l’interactivité entre les machines.

La première désigne comme son nom l’indique la faculté de d’interagir et de communiquer avec d’autres humains tandis que la deuxième désigne la capacité d’une personne à accéder à une base de données en ligne. C’est d’ailleurs le point central de cette étude.

Le postulat de base est que le comportement du consommateur dépend grandement du type d’interactivité proposé dans un environnement d’achat en ligne donné. Ces outils d’interactivité font ici référence à l’aide à la décision interactive mentionné dans le titre de l’article.

Ainsi, l’organisation de cet article est la suivante :

  1. Compréhension du processus de décision et de l’aide à la décision
  2. Compréhension des aides interactives dans le cadre des achats en ligne



Compréhension du processus de décision et de l’aide à la décision :

Les humains adaptent leurs stratégies de prise de décisions aux situations et à l’environnement. Payne en 1982, Shugan en 1980 et Bettman 1990 démontrent que les hommes cherchent à réduire l’effort cognitif associé à la prise de décision. Ainsi ils se conforment à une précision imparfaite de leurs décisions en retour d’une réduction de l’effort.
Ce rapport entre effort et précision entraine souvent la prise d’une décision satisfaisante. C’est particulièrement le cas lorsque les alternatives sont nuisibles ou difficiles à comparer, c’est-à-dire lorsque la compléxité de l’environnement de décision est élevée.

Ainsi lorsque l’homme fait face à ce genre d’environnement de décision complexe, il peut utiliser une technologie informatique d’aide à la décision. Ils effectuent des taches ou des fonctions de traitement d’informations distinctes. Le principe de motivation qui sous-tend les aides à la décision est que les tâches de traitement de l’information, à forte intensité de ressources, mais standard, sont effectuées par un système informatique, ce qui libère une partie de la capacité de traitement des décideurs humains. Le travail est donc partager entre l’humain et l’ordinateur.

Nous allons maintenant voir un aperçu général des aides à la décision interactive disponibles pour les consommateurs dans le but de faire des achats en ligne.

Compréhension des aides interactives dans le cadre de l’achat en ligne :

La technologie disponible pour la mise en œuvre de l’interactivité des machines dans les environnements commerciaux en ligne est une formidable opportunité pour une entreprise de pallier l’absence de contact physique avec les produits ainsi que l’absence d’interaction en face à face avec un vendeur.

Les aides à la décisions interactives peuvent prendre différentes formes allant des moteurs de recherche à vocation générale à l’agent sophistiqué. Une classification des agents d’achats interactifs repose sur la question de savoir si un outil es conçu pour aider un consommateur à déterminer ce qu’il faut acheter ou, ou il faut l’acheter.

Un phénomène bien connu concernant la prise de décision dans des environnements complexes est que les individus sont souvent incapables d’évaluer toutes les alternatives disponibles en profondeur avant de faire un choix.

Dans le cadre de la décision d’achat le processus de décision le consommateur identifie dans un premier temps un large éventail de produits pertinent sans les examiner en profondeur et un sous ensemble qui comprend les solutions de rechange les plus pertinentes. Ensuite, il évalue ce dernier en profondeur en comparant les caractéristiques des produis avant de prendre sa décision d’achat.

Ainsi dans le cadre de l’aide à la décision, les outils interactifs peuvent apporter un soutien au consommateur dans les cas suivants :

  • Le dépistage initial des produits disponibles pour déterminer ceux qui valent le plus la peine d’être examinés en premiers.
  • La comparaison approfondie des produits sélectionnés avant de prendre la décision d’achat réelle.

Dans le cas de cette étude, il a été décidé de se concentrer sur deux outils interactifs.

L’agent de recommandation : Un outil de sélection de solution de rechange :

L’agent de recommandation a pour objectif de dépister initialement des alternatives disponibles dans une boutique en ligne. La RA utilisée dans la présente étude génère une liste personnalisée d’alternatives recommandées, dans lesquelles des alternatives sont décrites par leur marque et leur nom de modèle.

Une matrice de comparaison :

La matrice de comparaison est conçue pour permettre aux acheteurs de comparer les produits plus efficacement et de manière appropriée. Il permet au consommateur d’ajouter un produit à sa propre matrice afin que ses caractéristiques soient comparées aux autres produits de cette matrice. Ainsi le consommateur peut faire son choix en se basant uniquement sur certaines caractéristiques les plus pertinentes. Le format est interactif dans la mesure ou l’homme présélectionne et la machine facilite le processus de décision d’achat. De plus la machine met l’accent sur la mémorisation des produits et facilite donc le choix du consommateur.


Une des caractéristiques de l’environnement commercial électroniques est la quasi absence de limites physiques en ce qui concerne l’affichage du produit. Ainsi un commerce en ligne offrira un nombre extrêmement élevé de solutions de rechange dans une catégorie de produits.
C’est évidemment un plus pour le consommateur qui a plus de choix que dans un magasin physique.

Néanmoins, les ressources cognitives limitées du consommateur ne lui permettent pas de traiter les quantités potentiellement importantes d’informations sur ces alternatives.

C’est la raison pour laquelle les aides à la décisions interactives dont le but est d’aider à gérer efficacement et à capitaliser sur les grandes quantités d’informations à disposition dans un environnement d’achat en ligne.

Cette étude avait donc pour but d’étudier les effets des agents de recommandation ainsi que des matrices de comparaison. Le premier aide les consommateurs dans le dépistage initial des alternatives tandis que le second facilite les comparaisons approfondies d’alternatives sélectionnées.

Ainsi l’étude menée permet de mettre en exergue l’impact important sur la quantité de recherches d’informations sur les produits, la taille et la qualité des ensemble de considérations des acheteurs et la qualité de leurs décisions d’achat.

Partant du principe bien établit qu’il existe un compromis entre effort et précision inhérent à la prise de décision humaine dans les environnements traditionnels, nous pouvons constater que des outils tel que les agents de recommandations et les matrices de comparaison permettent au consommateur d’améliorer la qualité de sa décision tout en réduisant ses efforts. De fait cette étude démontre que les outils d’aides à la décision interactifs ont un impact stratégique sur la façon dont les consommateurs recherchent des informations sur les produits et prennent des décisions d’achat.

Attitudes towards mobile advertising – A research to determine the differences between the attitudes of youth and adults.

Ünal, S., Ercis, A., & Keser, E. (2011). Attitudes towards mobile advertising – A research to determine the differences between the attitudes of youth and adults. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 361-377

Mots Clés : Consumer behavior, Mobile advertising, Consumer attitudes

Depuis le début des années 2000, la publicité sur mobile est devenue un canal de communication très important. Via ce canal mobile, les entreprises peuvent toucher le consommateur à tout moment de la journée et n’importe où. Le consommateur est toujours ouvert à la communication one-to-one qui attire plus l’attention. Parmi le canal mobile, le SMS a beaucoup de succès car il peut être interactif et personnalisé.

Dans cette étude, Ünal et al démontrent qu’il existe une différence entre l’attitude des jeunes et des adultes concernant la publicité sur mobile.

  • Dans un premier temps, nous répertorions les différentes hypothèses éventuelles sur l’impact de différents critères sur l’attitude des consommateurs face à la publicité mobile.
  • Ensuite, nous identifierons la méthodologie utilisée par Ünal et al pour mettre en valeur des différences d’attitudes entres les adultes et les jeunes concernant la publicité mobile.
  • Enfin, nous analyserons les résultats de l’étude.


Les hypothèses :

  • Hypothèse 1 : The perception de la publicité mobile comme divertissante a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 2 : La perception de la publicité mobile comme publicité informative a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 3 : La perception de la publicité mobile comme ennuyante a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 4 : La perception de la publicité mobile comme fiable a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 5 : La perception de la publicité mobile comme fiable a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 6 : La notion d’autorisation a un effet sur l’attitude des consommateurs envers la publicité mobile.
  • Hypothèse 7 : L’incitation envers la publicité mobile a un effet sur l’intention d’utiliser la publicité mobile dans la consommation.
  • Hypothèse 8 : Les attitudes envers la publicité mobile ont un effet sut l’intention d’utiliser la publicité mobile dans la consommation.
  • Hypothèse 9 : L’intention d’utiliser la publicité mobile dans la consommation a un effet d’acception ou de rejet.
  • Hypothèse 10 : Il y a des différences entre le comportement d’acceptation ou de rejet de la publicité mobile entre les jeunes et les adultes.


La méthode utilisée :

La population de l’étude inclut des utilisateurs de téléphone portable habitant à Erzurum en Turquie. Le questionnaire a été envoyé à 400 personnes. Après vérification des réponses, 380 questionnaires ont été gardés.

Il y a avait 3 groupes de questions dans ce questionnaire :

  • Groupe 1 : questions sur les caractéristiques démographiques
  • Groupe 2 : questions permettant de déterminer l’expérience des répondants par rapport à la publicité mobile.
  • Groupe 3 : questions permettant de déterminer l’attitude des répondants en réponse à la publicité mobile.

Les résultats :

Selon les résultats, une publicité mobile étant divertissante, informative, fiable, personnalisée et ayant été envoyé avec une permission a un effet positif sur les attitudes crées par la publicité mobile. Une publicité considérée comme irritante a un effet négatif sur les attitudes.

Il y a une différence entre les attitudes, les intentions et le comportement des jeunes et des adultes envers la publicité mobile. Les jeunes ont tendance à voir la publicité mobile comme plus irritante que les adultes. Contrairement aux adultes, les jeunes pensent que la publicité mobile est plus personnalisée et plus incitante. Les jeunes sont plus positifs par rapport à cette forme de publicité et sont plus susceptible de l’utiliser que les adultes.


Références :

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La protection des données personnelles à la croisée des chemins

Mots clés : protection, données personnelles, CNIL, loi, Data, analyse, juridique.


Dans cet article, l’objectif de l’auteur est de montrer les lois en vigueurs concernant la protection des données personnelles et mettre en avant ses limites et ses axes d’améliorations.


Développement :


L’auteur nous fait tout d’abord une présentation historique des lois pour la protection des données personnelles. Il nous parle ensuite de l’intérêt de ces lois pour le consommateur qui est souvent analysé via sa data collecté sur internet par les entreprises. Il utilise le terme de marchandisation des données personnelles pour illustrer ses propos.

Ensuite il met en avant les problèmes rencontrés par les différentes lois en vigueur dans les pays comme aux Etats-Unis où les entreprises ont beaucoup de pouvoir et de émettent beaucoup de pression sur les institutions gouvernementales.

L’auteur analyse ensuite, le texte de lois le plus aboutie, qui est celui mis en place par l’union européenne. Il y a des problèmes ou des subtilités de consentement de la part du consommateur dans les différents contrats mis en place par exemple. On peut également parler de problème de proportionnalité notamment dans l’exemple de ce collège qui souhaite collecter des données sensibles sur l’ensemble des élevés.


Conclusion :


Ces observations expliquent sans doute que le principe d’une protection (improprement dite “des données personnelles” alors qu’il s’agit d’une protection des personnes à l’égard du traitement automatique des données qui les concernent) soit, dans bien des Etats, consacré au niveau constitutionnel, plus encore lorsque ces Etats ont connu des régimes autoritaires.

L’Union européenne elle-même a souhaité faire figurer la protection des données personnelles au titre des droits fondamentaux proclamés au sommet de Nice. L’exigence posée par l’article 7 de cette Charte qu’une autorité de contrôle indépendante soit instituée manifeste, sans aucun doute, le rôle qui est encore attendu de telles autorités à l’heure du “tout numérique”.

“L’organe de la conscience sociale” écrivait, il y a plus de 20 ans, Bernard Tricot en appelant de ses vœux la création d’une autorité ad hoc. Cette exigence demeure, plus que jamais, d’actualité.


Guaranty Funds, Government Shareholding and Risk Taking: Evidence from China

Mots clés : assurance, financement, remboursement, système financier, lois, gouvernement, fond de garantie, communisme.


Dans cet article, l’objectif des auteurs et de comparer le système d’assurance chinois qui est sous contrôle de l’état et celui des assureurs étrangers notamment ceux implanté en chine.


Développement :

Cet article examine les différentes hypothèses sur la subvention des risques, la surveillance et la structure de propriété en ce qui concerne les fonds de garantie en se basant sur les assurances chinoises.

Par rapport au modèle américain, les fonds chinois de garantie possèdent des caractéristiques distinctes telles que : pré-évaluation, accumulation séparée et responsabilité partielle lors de faillite. Les auteurs constatent que les risques des entreprises d’assurance diminuent suite à la création de fonds de garantie. Pour eux la pré-évaluation offre un risque limité aux assureurs et une meilleure surveillance des parties prenantes.

Les auteurs constatent également que les assureurs étrangers sont plus axés sur le risque que leurs homologues chinois contrôlés par l’État.

Conclusion :

Dans cet article les auteurs ont voulu examiné le fonctionnement des assurances chinoises et ont trouvé des similarités avec les systèmes étrangers comme un plafond de prestations pour les assurés, une évaluation forfaitaire. Mais ils y ont également trouvé des différences telles que pré-évaluation : le fonds de garantie de chaque société d’assurance opérant en Chine est évalué chaque année.

Nous montrons que la prise de risque par les entreprises d’assurance chinoises a diminué suite à la création de fonds de garantie mais que les institutions gouvernementales chinoises essayent tout de même de les contrôler.

Les assureurs contrôlés par l’État dominent le marché de l’assurance chinoise. Les régulateurs d’assurance ont toujours appliqué plus de contrôle aux assureurs contrôlés par l’État qu’aux assureurs étrangers.

Les auteurs suggèrent que les régulateurs chinois devraient surveiller les assureurs étrangers plus qu’ils ne l’ont fait à ce jour afin de créer un marché stable et concurrentiel.






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E-commerce: 3 tendances dans l’acquisition client pour 2016


L’acquisition client a joué un rôle important dans le e-commerce en 2015 et poursuivra sa lancé l’année prochaine. Dans cet article, Knibiehly,H, VP marketing chez Twenga Solutions explique qu’acquérir de nouveaux clients est devenu primordiale alors que le marché devient de plus en plus compétitif. Grâce des centaines de fonctionnalités nouvelles sur AdWords et Google Shopping chaque année, le développement de nouvelles plateformes de shopping social, les annonceurs ont un nombre important d’outils à leur disposition mais il n’est pas pour autant plus facile de prendre de l’avance sur ses compétiteurs.

  • En premier lieu, nous traiterons du marché de la publicité en ligne puis nous terminerons par parler du Search Marketing

Dans cet article, l’auteur nous explique que  certaines plateformes auparavant non utilisées sont maintenant prises en compte dans les nouvelles stratégies marketing. En effet, Facebook, Twitter ou encore Google Shopping sont devenues essentielles pour promouvoir une marque du fait du cout moindre, du nombre de personnes touché mais aussi la possibilité de filtrer la publicité selon les profils et habitudes de consommation. L’auteur explique également que les e-commerçants utilisent de plus en plus Google Shoping qui se révèle être un outil très efficace.

De plus le Vice President marketing de chez Twenga Solutions nous explique que pour être performant en 2016, les e-commerçants devront gérer leurs campagnes sur davantage de plateformes, en prenant toujours plus de facteurs en compte. Pour ce faire, ils devront s’adapter aux trois grandes tendances suivantes :

  • La segmentation d’audience devient la norme, grâce aux mots-clés tapés dans les moteurs de recherche les annonceurs peuvent comprendre l’intention de l’utilisateur.
  • La data produit
  • Les enchères publicitaires

En conclusion les e-commerçants qui arriveront à mettre en place les différentes techniques présentées pourront prendre de l’avance sur leurs concurrents en améliorant le ROI de leurs campagnes d’acquisition client.

Viral effects of social network and media on consumers’ purchase intention

Gunawan, D. and Huarng, K. (2015). Viral effects of social network and media on consumers’ purchase intention. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), pp.2237-2241.

Keywords:  Viral marketing, eWOM, SEM, fsQCA

Main idea: This article is based on a study that explains how SNM influences people to make purchases. The research they conducted is surveys completed by people who use three SNM platforms.
The SEM results proved that SNM has no correlation with consumer’s purchasing, whereas fsQCA shows the opposite.


SNM sites are growing, and affect their user’s lives by forming connections among these users. SNM Viral marketing is often used as an electronic WOM, since a lot of people are connected and state their opinions and tastes online. The messages are transmitted way faster than they once were, which benefits the market as well as the consumers.

The study is based on three theories that make sense when put together (TRA, IAM and perceived risk). The first one is used to understand and predict behavior. The second one basically explains how one adopts to a new model, or technology. The latter clarifies the overall risk a consumer feels before and after purchasing a particular item.

The study gathered data taken from users who completed surveys they got online via these SNM sites. Based on the results, the researches would define if the theories can still apply. The findings prove that social influence is, indeed, the first leading impact.
To conclude, the SEM results indicates that social influence and the source credibility is very important and showing in consumer’s attitude toward receiving and trusting an information. Consumers are more comfortable in listening to opinions from credible sources rather than trusting arguments written with quality.


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Fiche de lecture  :


Mots clés : Data Science, Big Data, Data Driven decision making, 

Provst F and Fawcett T,explain how Data Science works wih Big Data. They show us how this data can be collected, used and analyzed to drive decision making.

Développement :

With vast amounts of data now available, companies in almost every industry are focused on exploiting data for competitive advantage. The volume and variety of data have far outstripped the capacity of manual analysis, and in some cases have exceeded the capacity of conventional databases.

At the same time, computers have become far more powerful, networking is ubiquitous, and algorithms have been developed that can connect datasets to enable broader and deeper analyses than previously possible.

The convergence of these phenomena has given rise to the increasingly widespread business application of data science. Companies across industries have realized that they need to hire more data scientists. Academic institutions are scrambling to put together programs to train data scientists. Publications are touting data science as a hot career choice and even ‘‘sexy.’’

The authors argue that there are good reasons why it has been hard to pin down what exactly is data science. One reason is that data science is intricately intertwined with other important concepts, like big data and data-driven decision making, which are also growing in importance and attention. Another reason is the natural tendency, in the absence of academic programs to teach one otherwise, to associate what a practitioner actually does with the definition of the practitioner’s field; this can result in overlooking the fundamentals of the field.

Data-science academic programs are being developed, and in an academic setting we can debate its boundaries. However, in order for data science to serve business effectively, it is important  to understand its relationships to these other important and closely related concepts, and (to begin to understand what are the fundamental principles underlying data science.

They present a perspective that addresses all these concepts by highlighting the data science as the connective tissue between data-processing technologies and data-driven decision making.

Conclusion :

Underlying the extensive collection of techniques for mining data is a much smaller set of fundamental concepts comprising data science. In order for data science to flourish as a field, rather than to drown in the flood of popular attention, we must think beyond the algorithms, techniques, and tools in common use. We must think about the core principles and concepts that underlie the techniques, and also the systematic thinking that fosters success in data-driven decision making. These data science concepts are general and very broadly applicable

Success in today’s data-oriented business environment requires being able to think about how these fundamental concepts apply to particular business problems—to think data-analytically. This is aided by conceptual frameworks that themselves are part of data science.

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Culture and Consumer Ethics

Article Summary: Swaidan, Z. (2011). Culture and Consumer Ethics. Journal Of Business Ethics, 108(2), 201-213.

Keywords: Culture , Hofstede model, Consumer ethics, African American subculture, Muncy and Vitell model


Main idea: This study discovers the differences in consumer ethics across cultural dimensions using Hofstede’s model and Muncy and Vitell consumer ethics model.

Brands should understand that depending on the culture, consumer’s behavior will be different on a product or a service, therefore it is an important & influential variable.
The author states that culture and it’s differences affect the marketing mix because it says a lot about a consumer. He mentions Hofstede (1980) theory which is: “cultures could be contrasted along four dimensions: individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance.”

This research focuses on an African American subculture sample to study the differences in culture and consumer ethics.

This study has 3 main objectives:

1st: study the cultural orientations of African American consumers (four dimensions of Hofstede’s (1980)

2nd: study the consumer ethics of African Americans (Muncy and Vitell (1992)) model.

3rd: Examine the differences in ethics among consumers who score high and consumers who score low on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (i.e., collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance).

After the author explored (within the sample of African American) the relationship between culture and personal moral philosophies, they concluded that there is a positive relationship between collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and idealism; and a negative relationship between masculinity and idealism. Therefore, culture affects moral orientations of consumers.

He then studies different hypothesis by comparing the four dimensions of Hofstede’s model, depending if consumers score high or low and studying whether they reject illegal, active, passive, and no harm questionable activities


In this study, the different results proves that marketers who are looking to work on an international scale and include how and what the consumer of each culture want, is important to study and explore very well. The author mentiones that although he studied the differences in consumer ethics across cultural dimensions, more research should be done to explore the differences in consumer ethics using culture characteristics.

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