Magasin physique et vitrine virtuelle : perspectives d’experts et de consommateurs sur la perception du rêve dans l’industrie du luxe

Mots clés : dream, e-marketing, heritage brands, luxury, polysensoriality

Dans cet article, l’auteur développe la stratégie des entreprises de luxe d’utiliser le digital et l’esthétisme.

Développement :

L’auteur a conduit cette étude pour démontrer comment faire vivre une réelle expérience client. Avec une croissance moyenne de 6% en 2013, l’industrie du luxe continue de croître et l’auteur nous démontre l’importance d’allier digital et luxe. Une question se pose dans cette étude : les consommateurs ont-ils la même capacité à rêver face à une vitrine virtuelle qu’au sein d’une boutique physique ?

Dans sa présente étude il vise à développer une compréhension fine des différents éléments menant le consommateur au rêve. Considérant la polysensorialité et le rêve, cette étude est centrée sur la perception du consommateur lors de son interaction avec la marque de luxe, dans un environnement physique ou virtuel.

Bien que l’envie ou le désir soit principalement un processus explicite, l’auteur prouve qu’il peut également se manifester comme un aspect inconscient, par l’expérience client développer par le digital. Cet aspect est désormais essentiel en particulier dans l’univers alimentaire ou communiquer des émotions aux consommateurs est indispensable. 

Conclusion :

L’auteur dans cet article analyse la perception du rêve dans l’industrie du luxe, et le rôle d’Internet comme vecteur de démocratisation.

Bibliographie :

Bagwell L. S. et Bernheim B. D. (1996), Veblen effects in a theory of conspicuous consumption, American Economic Review, 86, 3, 349-373.

Bastien V. et Kapferer J.-N. (2012), The luxury strategy: break the rules of marketing to build luxury brands, Londres, Kogan Page.

Bastien V. et Kapferer J.-N. (2013), Luxe Oblige (2ème ed.), Paris, Eyrolles. Baudrillard J. (1968), Le Système des objets, Paris, Gallimard.
Baudrillard J. (1970), La société de consommation, Paris, Gallimard.

14

Belk R. W. (1991), The ineluctable mysteries of possessions, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 6, 17-55.

Bennett R. (2005), Antecedents and consequences of website atmosphere in online charity fundraising situations, Journal of Website Promotion, 1, 1, 131-152.

Bourdieu P. (1979), La Distinction: critique sociale du jugement, Paris, Éditions de Minuit. Bourdieu P. (1979), Les trois états du capital culturel, Actes de la Recherche en Sciences

Sociales, 30, 3-6.
Chaudhuri H. R. et Majumdar S. (2010), Conspicuous consumption: is that all bad? Investigating

the alternative paradigm, Journal for Decision Makers, 35, 4, 53-59.
Clais A.-M. (2002), Patrimoine et comportement des marques : actualité d’un paradoxe ?, Revue

Française du Marketing,187, 2, 83-91.
Cova B. et Carrère V. (2002), Les communautés de passionnés de marques: opportunité ou

menace sur le net?, Revue Française du Marketing, 189, 4, 119-130.
Cova B. et Cova V. (2009), Les figures du nouveau consommateur: une genèse de la

gouvernementalité du consommateur, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 24, 3, 82-100. Daucé B. et Rieunier S. (2002), Le marketing sensoriel du point de vente, Recherche et

Applications en Marketing, 17, 4, 45-65.
Dion D. et Arnould E. (2011), Retail luxury strategy: assembling charisma through art and

magic, Journal of Retailing, 87, 4, 502-520.
Dion D. et Borraz S. (2015), Managing heritage brands: a study of the sacralization of heritage

stores in the luxury industry, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 77-84.
Dubois B. et Paternault C. (1995), Observations: understanding the world of international luxury

brands: the “dream formula”, Journal of Advertising Research, 35, 4, 69-76.
Freire N. A. (2014), When luxury advertising adds the identitary values of luxury: a semiotic

analysis, Journal of Business Research, 67, 2, 2666-2675.
Geerts A. et Veg-Sala N. (2014), Le luxe et Internet : évolutions d’un paradoxe, Revue

Management et Avenir, 71, 111-128.
Godey B., Pederzoli D., Aiello G., Donvito R., Wiedmann K.-P. et Hennigs N. (2013), A cross-

cultural exploratory content analysis of the perception of luxury from six countries, Journal of

Product and Brand Management, 22, 3, 229-237.
Heilbrunn B. (2010), La consommation et ses sociologies, Paris, Armand Colin.
Hennigs N., Wiedmann K.-L. et Klarmann C. (2012), Luxury brands in the digital age:

exclusivity versus ubiquity, Marketing Review St. Gallen, 29, 30-35.
Hermès (2013), Rapport annuel 2013: présentation du groupe – rapport d’activité [online],

consulté le 10 juillet 2014, disponible sur: http://finance.hermes.com/var/finances/storage/original/application/d76e20710025979508863 41a83c7f359.pdf

Holt D. (1998), Does cultural capital structure American consumption?, The Journal of Consumer Research, 25, 1, 1-25.

Kahle L. R. et Chiagouris L. (2014), Values, lifestyles and psychographics. Hove, Psychology Press.

Kemp S. (1998), Perceiving luxury and necessity, Journal of Economic Psychology, 19, 5, 591- 606.

Kluge P. N., Königsfeld J. A., Fassnacht M., et Mitschke F. (2013), Luxury web atmospherics: an examination of homepage design, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 41, 11, 901-916.

Kozinets R. V. (2010), Netnography: doing ethnographic research online, Londres, Sage publications.

Law R., Qi S. et Buhalis D. (2010), Progress in tourism management: a review of website evaluation in tourism research, Tourism Management, 31, 297-313.

15

Lehu J.-M. (2006), Brand rejuvenation, Londres, Kogan Page.
Lehu J.-M. (2012), L’Encyclopédie du Marketing, Paris, Eyrolles.
Li G., Li G., et Kambele Z. (2012), Luxury fashion brand consumers in China: perceived value,

fashion lifestyle, and willingness to pay, Journal of Business Research, 65, 10, 1516-1522. Liu X., Burns A. C. et Hou, X. (2013), Comparing online and in-store shopping behaviour towards luxury goods, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 14, 11,

885-900.
Lundqvist A., Liljander V., Gummerus J. et Van Riel A. (2013), The impact of storytelling on

the consumer brand experience: the case of a firm-originated story, Journal of Brand

Management, 20, 4, 283-297.
LVMH (2014), Exercice 2014: document de reference [online], consulté le 10 juillet 2014,

disponible sur: http://r.lvmh-static.com/uploads/2015/02/lvmh-document-de-reference-

2014.pdf (accessed 12 May 2015).
Madzharov A. V., Block L. G., et Morrin, M. (2015), The cool sent of power: effects of ambient

scent on consumer preferences and choice behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 79, 83-96. Okonkwo U. (2010), Luxury online: styles, systems, strategies, New-York, Palgrave Macmillan. Phau I. et Pendergast G. (2000), Consuming luxury brands: the relevance of the “Rarity

Principle”, The Journal of Brand Management, 8, 2, 122-138.
Pires G., Stanton J. et Rita P. (2006), The Internet, consumer empowerment and marketing

strategies, European Journal of Marketing, 40, 9, 936-949.
Roux E. et Floch J.-M. (1996), Gérer l’ingérable : la contradiction interne de toute maison de

luxe, Décisions Marketing, 9, 15-23.
Roy R. et Rabbanee F. K. (2015), Antecedents and consequences of self-congruity, European

Journal of Marketing, 49, 3, 444-466.
Sartre J.-P. (1943), L’être et le néant, Paris, Gallimard.
Shukla P. et Purani K. (2012), Comparing the importance of luxury value perceptions in

crossnational contexts, Journal of Business Research, 65, 10, 1417-1424.
Truong Y. (2010), Personal aspirations and the consumption of luxury goods, International

Journal of Market Research, 52, 5, 653-671.
Urde M., Greyser S. A. et Balmer J. M. T. (2007), Corporate brands with a heritage, Journal of

Brand Management, 15, 1, 4-19.
Xerfi Global (2013), Luxury Companies – World: Market Analysis – 2013-2015 Trends and

Corporate Strategies, Paris, France.
Veg-Sala N. et Geerts A. (2011), Gestion de la cohérence des récits de marques de luxe sur

Internet: étude sémiotique et analyse comparée des secteurs de la maroquinerie et de la

joaillerie, Revue Française du Marketing, 233, 3, 5-26.
Vincendet A. (2011), Les sens au cœur de l’expérience client, La Tribune [online], consulté le 10

juillet 2014, disponible sur : http://www.latribune.fr/entreprises-finance/publi- redactionnel/abc-luxe/20110119trib000593423/les-sens-au-coeur-de-l-experience-client.html

Patrimoines gastronomiques et développement local : les limites du modèle français de gastronomie élitiste

Mots clés : cuisine, restaurant, alimentation, terroir, gastronomie

Dans cet article, l’auteur dénote les  limites et l’épuisement relatif du modèle élitiste qui domine la gastronomie.

Développement :

L’auteur a conduit cette étude dans le but de montrer qu’il y a désormais un modèle de gastronomie populaire. Le système gastronomique français s’est historiquement constitué autour d’un modèle aristocratique. Pour autant dans nombre de pays, il existe une gastronomie populaire, généralement fondée sur les produits du terroir et les recettes locales ce qui est aussi le cas de la France. Ce retour vers le pluralisme gastronomique tente à démocratiser la gastronomie et se tourner vers un univers plus populaire. L’auteur développe la thèse des stratégies récentes de valorisation des patrimoines gastronomiques locaux et régionaux qui seraient à l’origine de cette démocratisation. 

Conclusion :

L’auteur apporte dans cet article une nouvelle vision de l’univers gastronomique. Une vision de la gastronomie élitiste qui à atteint ses limites et qui se tourne désormais vers une gastronomie populaire. 

 

Bibliographie :

Michela Addis et Morris B. Holbrook, “On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: an explosion of subjectivity, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 1, n° 1, 2001.

Christian Barrère, Denis Barthélemy, Martino Nieddu et Franck-Dominique Vivien, Réinventer le patrimoine. De la culture à l’économie, une nouvelle pensée du patrimoine ?, L’Harmattan, 2004.

Christian Barrère et Walter Santagata, La Mode. Une économie de la créativité et du patrimoine, à l’heure du marché, La Documentation française, 2005.

Christian Barrère, Quentin Bonnard et Véronique Chossat, “Democratization in the gastronomic market: from Michelin stars to Michelin ‘Bibs’”, The 16th ACEI Conference, Copenhague, 9-12 juin 2010.

Christian Barrère, Aldo Buzio, Alessia Mariotti, Alessandro Corsi et Paola Borrione, “Industria del gusto : un nuovo paradigma italiano”, Florens 2012. Essays and Researches. International Biennial of Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Bandecchi & Vivaldi, 2012.

William J. Baumol et William G. Bowen, Performing Arts – the Economic Dilemma: A Study of Problems Common to Theater, Opera, Music and Dance, The MIT Press, 1966.

Bénédict Beaugé, “Sur l’idée de nouveauté en cuisine”, Mode de recherche, n° 13 (“Gastronomie, cycles de mode et consommation”), 2010.

Quentin Bonnard, Les Districts gastronomiques, des districts d’un nouveau type, thèse de doctorat en sciences économiques, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 2011.

Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, Physiologie du goût, Gabriel de Gonet, 1848 (paru en 1826).

Olivier Etcheverria, “San Sebastian : capitale gastronomique parmi les capitales gastronomiques”, dans Julia Csergo et Jean-Pierre Lemasson (dir.), Voyages en gastronomies. L’invention des capitales et des régions gourmandes, Autrement, 2008.

Olivier Etcheverria, “Introduction”, Norois, n° 219 (numéro spécial dirigé par Olivier Etcheverria : “Le restaurant, outil de développement local ?”), Presses universitaires de Rennes, septembre 2011, 2011a.

Olivier Etcheverria, “Les tensions fondatrices du développement local autour du restaurant Bras à Laguiole : ‘centralité’, qualité et créativité”, Norois, n° 219 (numéro spécial dirigé par Olivier Etcheverria : “Le restaurant, outil de développement local ?”), Presses universitaires de Rennes, septembre 2011, 2011b.

Claude Fischler, L’Homnivore. Le goût, la cuisine et le corps, coll. “Points”, Odile Jacob, 1990.

Elsa Gatelier, Marie Delaplace et Marie-Claude Pichery, Patrimonialisation de la vitiviniculture et développement du tourisme dans les régions viticoles. Une comparaison Bourgogne/Champagne, XLIXe colloque de l’ASRDLF, Belfort, 9-11 juillet 2012.

Sylvie Guichard-Anguis, “Diffusion d’une culture alimentaire régionale et restauration : Kii Tanabe (Japon)”, Norois, n° 219 (numéro spécial dirigé par Olivier Etcheverria : “Le restaurant, outil de développement local ?”), Presses universitaires de Rennes, septembre 2011.

Gilles Lipovetsky, L’Empire de l’éphémère. La mode et son destin dans les sociétés modernes, Gallimard, 1987.

Vincent Marcilhac, “Revitalisation d’une économie locale et stratégie familiale : le cas Marcon à Saint-Bonnet-le-Froid”, Norois, n° 219 (numéro spécial dirigé par Olivier Etcheverria : “Le restaurant, outil de développement local ?”), Presses universitaires de Rennes, septembre 2011.

Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, 8e édition, Macmillan, 1920 (paru en 1890).

Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, Accounting for taste. The Triumph of French Cuisine, The University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Jean-Pierre Poulain, Manger aujourd’hui. Attitudes, normes et pratiques, Privat, 2002.

Walter Santagata, “Cultural districts and their role in developed and developing countries”, dans Victor A. Ginsburgh et David Throsby (dir.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, North-Holland, 2006.

Alain Senderens, “La créativité sans les étoiles. De Lucas Carton à Senderens”, Le Journal de l’école de Paris du management, n° 63, 2007.

Georg Simmel, “Fashion”, The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 62, n° 6, 1957 (article paru en 1904)

Herbert Spencer, “On Manners and Fashion” (paru en 1854 dans Westminster Review), dans H. Spencer, Essays on Education and Kindred Subjects, Dent/Everyman, réédition 1966 (1re édition 1911).

Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class, MacMillan, 1899.

EFFICACITÉ DES REDUCTEURS DE RISQUE MARKETING DANS LA CONFIANCE DU CONSOMMATEUR : LE CAS DES MARQUES ALIMENTAIRES CAUTIONNEES PAR DES GRANDS CHEFS DE CUISINE

Mots clés : indicateur de qualité, confiance, sécurité alimentaire, risque, principe d’incorporation, processus d’endossement, transfert de valeurs.

Dans cet article, l’objectif de l’auteur est de faire une analyse des nouvelles attentes du consommateur face à ses angoisses, sa perte de confiance des produits issus de l’industrie agroalimentaire.

Développement :

L’auteur a conduit cette étude pour analyser un changement de comportement des consommateurs dans le marché agro-alimentaire. Il développe l’idée que désormais les entreprises se tournent vers un marketing relationnel pour renforcer la confiance clients. Par ailleurs dû a de nombreuses problématique sur la provenance de nombreux aliments les nouveaux consommateurs sont à la recherche d’un gage de qualité. Pour cela de nombreuses entreprises développe une nouvelle stratégie : l’association de marques industrielles cautionnées par des grands chefs de la gastronomie française. Ce phénomène répond au besoin de réassurance du consommateur, en manque de repères, face à l’acte alimentaire. Enfin l’auteur dans cette étude développe une idée aussi d’industrialisation face à l’apparition de nouvelles technologies au vingtième siècle, le digital à désormais de fortes répercussions sur le nouveau mode de vie alimentaire. On fait face à une démocratisation de l’univers de la gastronomie.

Conclusion :

L’auteur démontre dans cet article l’importance du manque de confiance des consommateurs dans le secteur de l’alimentaire. Il démontre, en quoi une marque alimentaire cautionnée par un grand chef de cuisine peut agir positivement sur l’intention d’achat du consommateur, en le rassurant et en diminuant sa perception du risque alimentaire. Cet article analyse la démocratisation du monde gourmet et le changement de comportement d’achat du consommateur.

Bibliographie :

Adda J. (1999), « Les consommateurs français et la « vache folle » », Recherche en Economie et Sociologies Rurales, INRA Sciences sociales, n°4, décembre 1999. Apfelbaum M. (1998), Risques et peurs alimentaires, éditions Odile Jacob, Paris. Aron J-P. (1975), Le mangeur du XIXème, Paris, R. Laffont. Aurier P. et Dubois P.-L. (1996), « La littérature marketing à travers les grandes revues internationales : quels contenus et quel horizon ? », Actes du 13ème congrès des I.A.E., Toulouse. Barthes R. (1961), « Pour une psychosociologie de l’alimentation contemporaine», Annales ESC 16, Paris. Bauer R.A. (1960), « Consumer Behavior as Risk Taking », Dynamic Marketing for a Changing World, R.S. Hancock ed., American Marketing Association, pp. 389-398 Bonnefont A., Boleat M. (2001), « Publicité et transfert de valeurs : Endossement par produits et marques de valeurs incarnées par des actrices et transfert de ces valeurs aux consommateurs », in Marketing et Communication, Actes de la 2ème journée régionale AFM, 23 Mars 2001, Toulouse. Bourdieu P. (1979), La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement, Paris, Minuit, 1979. Brunel O. (2000), « La perception du risque alimentaire, pour une vision pluridisciplinaire du mangeur », in Percevoir identifier et gérer le risque en Marketing, Actes de la 1ère journée régionale AFM, 9 Juin 2000, Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris. Brunel O. (2001), « Les stratégies d’ajustement au risque inhérent perçu : Le cas des produits issus de l’industrie agroalimentaire », papier de recherche 2/2001. Buttle F. (1996), Relationship Marketing : Theory and Practice, Eds PCP Ltd, London, 195. Cases A-S (2001), La réduction du risque dans le contexte de l’achat électronique sur Internet Thèse de Doctorat en Sciences de Gestion, Université de Montpellier II. Chiva M. (1985), Le doux et l’amer, Paris, PUF. Chiva M. (2001), « Risques et confiance dans les relations entre les industries agroalimentaires et les consommateurs », Lettre de l’ANVIE, n°34, 3ème trimestre 2001. Corbeau J.-P. (1992) « Rituels alimentaires et représentations sociales », in Cahiers internationaux de sociologie, Volume XCII, PUF. Degon R., Jeannin D. (1986), « Les stars : étoiles de la publicité ? » – Revue Française du Marketing, n°108, 1986/3. 20 Dubois M. (1998), « Une nouvelle tendance en marketing alimentaire : le retour à la terre ou la référence à l’origine », Revue Française du Marketing, n°167, 1998/2. Dubois U. et Bernard E. (1856), La cuisine classique, Dentu, Paris. Escoffier A. (1902), Le guide culinaire, Flammarion Filser M (2001), « Le magasin amiral : de l’atmosphère du point de vente à la stratégie relationnelle de l’enseigne », Décisions marketing, 24, 7-16. Fischler C. (1979), « Gastro-nomie et gastro-anomie : sagesse du corps et crise bioculturelle de l’alimentation moderne », in La Nourriture, Communication n°31. Fischler C. (1990), L’homnivore, éditions Odile Jacob, Paris. Flambard-Ruaud S. (1997), « Les évolutions du concept de marketing », Décisions Marketing, n°11, Mai-Aout , pp. 7-20. Grignon C. (1980), « Styles d’alimentation et goûts populaires », Revue Française de Sociologie, XXI, Paris. Gummesson E. (1994), « Making Relationship Marketing Operational », International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 5, n°5, pp. 5-20. Kapferer J.-N. (2000), Re-marques : les marques à l’épreuve de la pratique, Édition d’Organisation, Paris. Kréziak D. (2000), « Organismes génétiquement modifiés : une étude exploratoire des perceptions des consommateurs », in Les Actes du 16ème Congrès de l’AFM, Volume 16, tome 1, Montréal. Larceneux F. (2001), « Proposition d’un modèle théorique d’analyse de l’impact des signaux de qualité sur l’évaluation des attributs du produit par le consommateur : le M.A.S.I.A. », in Les Actes du 17ème Congrès de l’AFM, Volume 17, Deauville. Lévi-Strauss C. (1964), Le cru et le cuit, Paris, Plon. Lévi-Strauss C. (1968), L’origine des manières de table, Paris, Plon. McCracken G. (1989), « Who is Celebrity Endorser ? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process », Journal of Consumer Research, n°16, pp310-321. Michon Ch. (2000), « La marque : Son rôle stratégique au cœur du marketing », Revue Française du Marketing, n°176, 2000/1, pp. 7-21. Mitchell V.W (1999), Consumer perceived Risk : conceptualizations and Models, European Journal of Marketing, 33, ½, 163-195. Moulin L. (1975), L’Europe à table, introduction à une psychosociologie des pratiques alimentaires , Bruxelles, Elsevier Séquoia. 21 Morgan R.M. et Hunt S.D. (1994), « The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing », Journal Of Marketing, Vol. 58, juillet, pp. 20-38. Ohanian R. (1991), “The Impact of Celebrity Spokespersons ‘perceived Image on Consumers’ Intention to Purchase”, Journal of Advertising Research, février-mars, pp. 46-54. Oude Ophuis P. et Van Trijp H.C.M. (1995), « Perceived Quality : a Market Driven and Consumer Oriented Approach », Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 6, pp.177-183. Pichon P.-E. (2001), « Le rôle de la confiance dans la marque collective et les signes officiels de qualité – application au secteur alimentaire », Tutorat Collectif des IAE, juin 2001, Paris. Poulain J.-P (1985), « Anthroposociologie de la cuisine et des manières de table », Thèse de sociologie, Lille. Pras B. (1997), « Qu’est-ce que le marketing ? », Encyclopédie de Gestion, éd. Economica Paris, tome 3, pp.2757-2759. Poulain J.-P. et Neirinck E. (1992), « Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers », Editions Lanore, Paris. Poulain J.-P. et Larroze G. (1994), « Traité d’ingénierie hôtelière », Editions Lanore, Paris. Poulain J.-P. (1996), « Les nouveaux comportements alimentaires », Programme de Recherche Aliments Demain, Ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Alimentation, février, Paris. Poulain J.-P. (1999), « L’espace social alimentaire », Cahiers de nutritions et de diététique, 34, 5, pp. 271-280. Ring A., Schriber M., Horton R.L. (1980), « Some Effects of Perceived Risk on Consumer Information Processing », Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.8, n°3, pp.255- 263. Rockeach M. (1973), “The Nature of Human Values”, Free Press, in “Les styles de vie : du mythe à la réalité”, Valette Florence P., Editions Nathan, Paris. Roselius T. (1971), « Consumer Ranking of Risk Reduction Method », Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35, pp.56-71. Rozin P., Nemeroff C. (1998), « The laws of Sympathetic Magic : A Psychological Analysis of Similarity and Contagion », in Lahlou S, Penser manger, Alimentation et représentations sociales, Paris, PUF. Sheth J. and Parvatiyar A. (1995 A), « The Evolution of Relationship Marketing », International Business Review, Vol.4, pp. 397-418. Sheth J. and Parvatiyar A. (1995 B), « Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets : Antecedents and Consequences », Journal Of the Academy Of Marketing Science, Vol. 23, n°4, pp. 255-271. 22 Sirieix L. (1999), « La consommation alimentaire : problématiques, approches et voies de recherche », Recherche et Applications en Marketing, Vol. 14, n°3/1999, pp.41-58. Sirieix L. (2001), « Orientations de la confiance et comportement d’achat : Le cas de l’achat de vin », in Les Actes du 17ème Congrès de l’AFM, Volume 17, Deauville. Webster E.F. Jr. (1992), « The changing role of marketing In the corporation », Journal Of Marketing, Vol. 56, Octobre, pp. 1-17. Weil P. (1993), « A quoi rêvent les années 90, les nouveaux imaginaires de consommation et de communication », Editions du Seuil, Paris.

 

Generation Y vs. baby boomers: Shopping behavior, buyer involvement and implications for retailing.

Generation Y vs. baby boomers: Shopping behavior, buyer involvement and implications for retailing.

Article de catégorie 3: Parment, A. (2013). Generation Y vs. baby boomers: Shopping behavior, buyer involvement and implications for retailing. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2), 189- 199

Mots clés : Generational cohorts, generational marketing, market segmentation, Generation Y, Baby Boomers, consumer behavior, Purchase involvement, retail strategies 

  • Idée principale: Utilisation de la segmentation par “cohortes générationnnelles” pour déterminer les motivations et comportements d’achat d’une cible potentielle.

Développement :

La segmentation des marchés est utilisée depuis de longues années comme outil stratégique. Parvenir à former des segments de consommateurs ayant des liens forts et homogènes est essentiel. Lorsque de telles similitudes existent, les spécialistes du marketing peuvent proposer des gammes de produits, de services, de distribution et de communication adaptés à un plus grand nombre de clients potentiels, plus susceptibles de répondre de manière favorable à l’offre.

Se référer à l’âge de la cible était un moyen utile de créer des groupes, cependant il ne permet pas vraiment de comprendre les motivations du segment. À l’inverse, les événements vécus par la cible créent des valeurs qui restent relativement inchangées. De telles valeurs fournissent un lien commun pour ceux de ce groupe d’âge ou de cette “génération” ( / cohorte générationnelle).

Cette étude compare deux cohortes significatives: les Baby Boomers et la Generation Y. L’auteur met donc en perspective leur valeurs, leur motivations et leur comportements d’achat (nourriture, vêtements et automobiles).

Pour les trois types de produits, les Baby Boomers valorise l’expérience de détail et le service en magasin. Pour cette génération, plus rationnelle, le processus d’achat commence avec un détaillant, donnant des conseils avisés pour choisir le bon produit. Tandis que pour la génération Y, plus émotionnelle, informée et hyper-connectée, le processus d’achat prend une toute autre importance. Les social média sont alors un outil marketing de taille, influençant leur processus d’achat. Le rôle de la marque devient alors tout autre lorsque l’on s’adresse à ces deux générations: les Baby Boomers réclamaient la qualité avant toute chose. Tandis que pour la génération Y, l’image et le statut social impliqués importent tout autant.

Se référer aux évènements vécus par une génération serait un moyen efficace de communiquer de manière pertinente à une cible donnée. Le recourt au style de musique, aux égéries, permet aux générations de se reconnaitre dans le message véhiculé par la marque.

Conclusion :

L’auteur tire plusieurs conclusions:

  • Une même cohorte générationnelle (Exemple de la Génération Y) aura des valeurs, des attitudes et des préférences similaires, cependant il n’en sera pas de même pour cohorte différente (Exemple des Baby Boomers). Ces caractéristiques influent de manière particulièrement significative leurs habitudes d’achat.
  • Dans certains cas, la segmentation “par cohortes/par générations” peut être une technique très efficace: il s’agit du “marketing de la nostalgie”. Les consommateurs ont des exigences élevées: Ils ont souvent besoin d’une attention et de produits adaptés à leur mode de vie.
  • L’analyse générationnelle des cohortes peut être utile lors de la conception de campagnes de communication ainsi que lors d’interactions plus personnelles.
  •  L’analyse des cohortes aide à la prévention des changements.

Références bibliographiques de l’article :

Aghekyan-Simonian, M., Forsythe, S., Suk Kown, W., Chattaraman, V., 2012. The role of product brand image and online store image on perceived risks and online purchase intentions for apparel. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 9, 325–331.

Apelbaum, E., Gerstner, E., Naik, P.A., 2003. The effects of expert quality evaluations versus brand name on price premiums. Journal of Product and Brand Management 12 (32), 154–165.

Beldona, S., 2005. Cohort analysis of online travel information search behavior: 1995–2000. Journal of Travel Research 44 (2), 135–142.

Berry, L.L., 1995. Relationship marketing of services—growing interest, emerging perspectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 23, 236–245.

Bitner, M.J., Booms, B.H., Mohr, L.A., 1994. Critical service encounters: the employee’s viewpoint. Journal of Marketing 58, 95–106.

Bleichrodt, H., Quiggin, J., 1999. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis? Journal of Health Economics 18 (6), 681–708.

Bodie, Z., Detemple, J.B., Otruba, S., Walter, S., 2004. Optimal consumption- portfolio choices and retirement planning. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 28 (6), 1115–1148.

Bolton, R.N., Drew, J.H., 1991. A multi-stage model of consumers’ assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research 17 (4), 375–384.

Boone, D.S., Roehm, M., 2002. Retail segmentation using artificial neural networks. International Journal of Research in Marketing 19 (3), 287–301.

Chaston, I., 2009. Boomer Marketing. Routledge, London.

Christy, R., Oliver, G., Penn, J., 1996. Relationship marketing in consumer markets. Journal of Marketing Management 12, 175–187.

Cutler, N., 1977. Political socialization research as generational analysis: the cohort approach vs. the lineage approach. In: Renton, S.A. (Ed.), Handbook of Political Socialization Theory and Research. The Free Press, New York, pp. 294–326.

Davis, J.F., 1997. Maintaining customer relationships through effective database marketing: a perspective for small retailers. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 5, 31–42.

Davies, G., Brito, E., 2004. Price and quality competition between brands and own brands: a values system perspective. European Journal of Marketing 38 (1–2), 30–55.

Dawar, N., Parker, P., 1994. Marketing universals: consumers’ use of brand name, price, physical appearance, and retailer reputation as signals of product quality. Journal of Marketing 58 (2), 81–95.

De Wulf, K., Odekerken-Schro ̈der, G., 2003. Assessing the impact of a retailer‘s relationship efforts on consumers’ attitudes and behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 10, 95–108.

Dennis, C., Marsland, D., Cockett, W.A., 2001. The mystery of consumer behaviour: market segmentation and shoppers’ choices of shopping centres. International Journal of New Product Development and Innovation Management 3 (3), 221–237.

Dhar, S.K., Hoch, S.J., 1997. Why store brand penetration varies by retailer. Marketing Science 16 (3), 208–227.

Dou, W., Wang, G., Zhou, N., 2006. Generational and regional differences in media consumption: patterns of Chinese generation consumers. Journal of Advertising 35, 101–110.

Dowling, G.R., Uncles, M., 1997. Do customer loyalty programs really work? Sloan Management Review 38, 71–82.

Dunne, D., Narasimhan, C., 1999. The new appeal of private labels. Harvard Business Review 77, 41–52.

Dwyer, F.R., Schurr, P.H., Oh, S., 1987. Developing buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing 51, 11–27.

Ehrenberg, A.S.C., 1993. If you’re so strong, why aren’t you bigger? Making the case against brand equity. Admap 28 (10), 13–14.

Ehrenberg, A.S.C., Goodhardt, G.J., Barwise, T.P., 1990. Double jeopardy revisited. Journal of Marketing 54, 82–91.

Erdem, O., Oumlil, B., Tuncalp, S., 1999. Consumer values and the importance of store attributes. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 27 (4), 137–144.

Fontenot, R., Wilson, E.J., 1997. Relational exchange: a review of selected models for a prediction matrix of relationship activities. Journal of Business Research 39, 5–12.

Fountain, J., Lamb, C., 2011. Generation Y as young wine consumers in New Zealand: how do they differ from Generation X? International Journal of Wine Business Research 23 (2), 107–124.

Greatorex, M., Mitchell, V.W., 1994. Modelling consumer risk reduction preferences from perceived loss data. Journal of Economic Psychology 15 (4), 669–685.

Gwinner, K.P., Gremler, D.D., Bitner, M.J., 1998. Relational benefits in services industries: the customer’s perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 26, 101–114.

Hammersley, M., Atkinson, P., 1996. Ethnography: Principles in Practice. Tavistock, New York.

Kahn, B.E., 1995. Consumer variety-seeking among goods and services: an integrative review. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 2 (3), 139–148.

Katona, G., Mueller, E., 1955. A study of purchasing decisions. In: Clarke, L.H. (Ed.), Consumer Behavior: The Dynamics of Consumer Reaction. New York University Press, New York, pp. 30–87.

Kau, A.K., Ehrenberg, A.S.C., 1984. Patterns of store choice. Journal of Marketing Research XXI, 99–409.

Kim, H.J., Knight, D.K., Crutsinger, C., 2009. Generation Y employees’ retail work experience: the mediating effect of job characteristics. Journal of Business Research 62 (5), 548–556.

Knox, S.D., Denison, T.J., 2000. Store loyalty: its impact on retail revenue. An empirical study of purchasing behaviour in the UK. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 7 (1), 33–45.

Kumar, V., Shah, D., 2004. Building and sustaining profitable customer loyalty for the 21st century. Journal of Retailing 80 (4), 317–329.

Lancaster, L.C., Stillman, D., 2002. When Generations Collide. Who They Are. Why They Clash, How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work. Collins Business, New York.

Lee, M.-Y., Atkins, K.G., Kim, Y.-K., Park, S.-H., 2006. Competitive analyses between regional malls and big-box retailers: a correspondence analysis for segmentation and positioning. Journal of Shopping Center Research 13, 83–98.

Liljander, V., Polsa, P., van Riel, V., 2009. Modelling consumer responses to an apparel store brand: store image as a risk reducer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 16, 281–290.

Littrell, M.A., Yoon, J.M., Halepete, J., 2005. Generation X, baby boomers, and swing: Marketing fair trade apparel. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 9 (4), 407–419.

Lumpkin, J.R., 1985. Shopping orientation segmentation of the elderly consumer. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 13 (1–2), 271–289.

Lyons, S., Duxbury, L., Higgins, C., 2005. Are Gender Differences in Basic Human Values a Generational Phenomenon? Sex Roles 53 (9–10), 763–778.

Ma, Y.J., Littrell, M.A., Niehm, L., 2012. Young female consumers’ intentions toward fair trade consumption. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management 40 (1), 41–63.

Mannheim, K., 1927. The problem of generations. In: Kecskemeti, P. (Ed.), Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 276–320.

Marcus, C., 1998. A practical yet meaningful approach to customer segmentation. Journal of Consumer Marketing 15 (5), 494–504.

Markert, J., 2004. Demographics of age: generational and cohort confusion. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising 26, 10–26.

Matthyssens, P., van den Bulte, C., 1994. Getting closer and nicer: partnerships in the supply chain. Long Range Planning 27 (1), 72–83.

McGinn, M.K., 2005. Ethical and friendly researchers, but not insiders: a response to Blodgett, Boyer, and Turk. Forum: Qualitative Social Research/Sozial- forschung 6 (3). (article 37) /http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/ fqs/article/view/33/70S.

Meredith, G., Schewe, C.D., 1994. The power of cohorts. American Demographics 16 (12), 22–31.

Meredith, G., Schewe, C.D., Karlovich, J., 2002. Defining Markets, Defining Moments: America’s Seven Generational Cohorts, Their Shared Experiences, and Why Businesses Should Care. John Wiley & Sons, New York, http://www. amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0764553941.

Moorthy, K.S., 1984. Market Segmentation: self-selection, and product line design. Marketing Science 3 (4), 288–307.

Newman, J.W., Staelin, R., 1972. Prepurchase information seeking for new cars and major household appliances. Journal of Marketing Research 9 (Aug), 249–257.

O’Brien, L., Jones, C., 1995. Do rewards really create loyalty? Harvard Business Review 73, 75–82.

O’Neill, H., Sackett, P., 1994. The extended manufacturing enterprise paradigm. Management Decision 32 (8), 42–49.

Parment, A., 2007. Generation Y as Consumers – A Study into the Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Communications, International School of Management and Industrial Engingeering, Research Report 2007, 3, Linko ̈ping Uni- versity,Linko ̈ping.

Parment, A., 2009. Automobile Marketing: Distribution Strategies for Competi- opeanJournalofMarketing20(8),49–62. tiveness.VDMPublishing,Saarbru ̈cken.

Holbrook, M.B., Schindler, R.M., 1989. Some exploratory findings on the develop- ment of musical tastes. Journal of Consumer Research 16, 119–124.

Holbrook, M.B., Schindler, R.M., 1994. Age, sex and attitude toward the past as predictors of consumers’ aesthetic tastes for cultural products. Journal of Marketing Research 31, 412–442.

Holmes, J.H., Crocker, K.E., 1987. Predispositions and the comparative effectiveness of rational, emotional, and discrepant appeals for both high involvement and low involvement products. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 15 (1), 27–35.

Hung, K.H., Gu, F.G., Yim, C.K., 2007. A social institutional approach to identifying generational cohorts in China with a comparison to American consumers. Journal of International Business Studies 38, 836–853.

Parment, A., 2011. Generation Y in Consumer and Labour Markets. Routledge, New York.

Pentecost, R., Lynda, A., 2010. Fashion retailing and the bottom line: the effects of generational cohorts, gender, fashion fanship, attitudes and impulse buying on fashion expenditure. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 17 (1), 43–52.

Quelch, J., Harding, D., 1996. Brands Versus Private Labels: Fighting to Win. Harvard Business Review 74, 99–109.

Rentz, J.O., Reynolds, F.D., Stout, R.G., 1983. Analyzing changing consumption patterns with cohort analysis. Journal of Marketing Research 12–20.

Richins, Marsha L., Bloch, Peter H., 1986. After the new wears off: the temporal context of product involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 13, 280–285. Rogler, L.H., 2002. Historical generations and psychology. American Psychologist 27, 1013–1023.

Rogler, L.H., Cooney, R.S., 1984. Puerto Rican Families in New York City: Intergenerational Processes. Waterfront Press, Maplewood.

Rotschild, M.L., 1979. Marketing communications in nonbusiness situations or why it’s so hard to sell brotherhood like soap. Journal of Marketing 43 (2), 11–20.

Ryder, N.B., 1985 [1959]. The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. In: Mason, W.M., Fienberg, S.E. (Eds.), Cohort Analysis in Social Research. Springer, New York, pp. 9–44.

Schewe, C., Noble, S.M., 2000. Market segmentation by cohorts: the value and validity of cohorts in America and abroad. Journal of Marketing Management 16, 129–142.

Schewe, C., Meredith, G., 2004. Segmenting global markets by generational cohorts: determining motivations by age. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 4, 51–63.

Schindler, R.M., Holbrook, M.B., 1993. Critical periods in the development of men’s and women’s tastes in personal appearance. Psychology and Marketing 10, 549–564.

Schuman, H., Scott, J., 1989. Generations and collective memories. American Sociological Review 54, 359–381.

Semeijn, J., van Riel, A.C.R., Ambrosini, A.B., 2004. Consumer evaluations of store brands: effects of store image and product attributes. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 11, 247–258.

Shepard, D.S., Zeckhauser, R.J., 1984. Survival versus consumption. Management Science 30 (4), 423–439.

Slama, M.E., Tashcian, A., 1985. Selected socioeconomic and demographic character- istics associated with purchasing involvement. Journal of Marketing 49, 72–82.

Teas, R.K., Agarwal, S., 2000. The effects of extrinsic product cues on consumers’ perceptions of quality, sacrifice, and value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28 (2), 278–290.

Tellis, G.J., Wernerfelt, B., 1987. Competitive price and quality under asymmetric information. Marketing Science 6, 240–253.

Thang, D.C.L., Tan, B.J.B., 2003. Linking consumer perception to preference of retail stores: an empirical assessment of the multi-attributes of store image. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 10 (4), 193–200.

Wells Jr., L.T., 1968. A product life cycle for international trade? Journal of Marketing 32, 1–6.

Wohl, R., 1979. The Generation of 1914. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Wray, B., Palmer, A., Bejou, D., 1994. Using neural network analysis to evaluate buyer–seller relationships. European Journal of Marketing 28, 32–48.

Wrigley, N., Dunn, R., 1984. Stochastic panel-data models of urban shopping behaviour: the interaction of store choice and brand choice. Environment and Planning 16, 1221–1 236.

Zemke, R., Raines, C., Filipczak, B., 2000. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xwers and Nexters in Your Workplace. AMA Publica- tions, New York.

Do social media marketing activities enhance customer equity? An empirical study of luxury fashion brand

Do social media marketing activities enhance customer equity? An empirical study of luxury fashion brand

Article de catégorie 2: Kim, A., & Ko, E. (2012). Do social media marketing activities enhance customer equity? An empirical study of luxury fashion brand. Journal Of Business Research, 65(10), 1480-1486, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.014

Mots clés: Luxury brands, perceived social media marketing (SMM), activities, value equity, brand equity, customer equity, purchase intention

  • Dans un premier temps, les auteurs cherchent  à mettre en perspective l’intérêt croissant que portent les marques luxe, dans l’industrie de la mode, à l’utilisation du “social media marketing” (appelé également SMM). Cette étude a pour but principal de permettre aux marques du secteur du luxe de comprendre plus rapidement les comportements d’achat de leur clientèle et d’orienter la gestion de leur stratégie de media sociaux.

Développement :

Les auteurs cherchent d’abord à identifier les effets d’une stratégie de social media marketing sur une entreprise. Ils définissent les SMM comme étant des applications en ligne, des plates-formes et des médias visant à faciliter les interactions, les collaborations et le partage du contenu. Les messages et les interactions avec les consommateurs s’accordent avec les médias, les événements, les divertissements, les services retail et les services numériques via les médias sociaux, il est possible d’effectuer des activités de marketing intégrées avec beaucoup moins d’efforts et de coûts qu’auparavant.
Cependant, Les médias sociaux peuvent avoir un impact dramatique sur la réputation d’une marque. L’information étant diffusée de manière immédiate et globale, les entreprises et les marques doivent maintenant tenir compte de la valeur de leur clients et de l’influence des médias sociaux.

Dans un second temps, les auteurs évoque l’application des SMM au secteur du luxe, et plus particulièrement dans l’industrie de la mode.  Le développement technologique profite au monde de la mode en attirant les clients afin qu’ils interagissent avec les marques. Au début, la plupart des marques étaient quelque peu réticentes à utiliser ces média sociaux; Cependant, beaucoup de Maisons de luxe ont considéré cette technologie comme une opportunité plutôt qu’une menace. Contrairement aux premières prédictions, les médias sociaux n’agissent pas toujours contre la réputation des marques.

Enfin les auteurs abordent la valeur ajoutée croissante des consommateurs dans ce contexte de digitalisation et d’essor des média sociaux: la valeur qu’un client apporte à une entreprise ne se limite pas au profit de chaque transaction, mais le bénéfice total que le client peut fournir pendant la durée de la relation avec l’entreprise

Conclusion :

L’étude a présente donc les bénéfices de l’utilisation du social media marketing par marques de mode de luxe sur le capital client et l’intention d’achat. Les activités SMM perçues par les consommateurs sont significativement efficaces pour les bénéfices futurs des marques de mode de luxe. Les auteurs mettent cependant en garde les marques de luxe au sujet du contrôle parfois très compliqué des média sociaux.

Références bibliographiques:

Aaker DA. Managing brand equity. NY: Free Press; 1991.

Anderson JC, Gerbing DW. Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychol Bull 1988;103(3):411–23.

Berry LL. Relationship marketing of services: growing interest, emerging perspectives. J Acad Mark Sci 1995;23:236–45.

Blattberg R, Getz G. Thomas JS, Customer equity: building and managing relationships as valuable assets. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; 2001.

Chung GJ, Lee SH. Exploratory research on audiences’ valuation factors of interactive TV advertising: applying diffusion theories. Korean Media Sci Res 2008;8(1):261–86.

DEI Worldwide. The impact of social media on purchasing behavior. Engaging Con- sumers Online. available at www.deiworldwide.com/files/DEIStudy-Engaging%20ConsumersOnline-Summary.pdf, 2008.

Gagliano KB, Hathcote J. Customer expectations and perceptions of service quality in retail apparel specialty stores. J Serv Mark 1994;8(1):60–9.

Han E, Shu B. Analysis of influencing factors on the acceptance of IPTV: comparison to cable TV and satellite TV. Enture J Inf Technol 2010;9(1):45–60.

Hennig-Thurau T, Gwinner K, Gremler D. Understanding relationship marketing out- comes: an integration of relational benefits and relationship quality. J Serv Res 2002;4(3):230–47.

Ju SR, Chung MS. The effects of relational benefits between fashion retail stores and customers of relationship quality and customer satisfaction. J. Korean Soc Clothing Text 2002;26(7):1043–55.

Keller KL. Strategic brand management: building, measuring and managing brand equity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1998.

Kim AJ. The effects of perceived social media marketing activities on customer equity and purchase intention: focus on luxury fashion brands. Unpublished master’s thesis, Yonsei University, 2010.

Kim AJ, Ko E. Impacts of luxury fashion brand’s social media marketing on customer relationship and purchase intention. J Glob Fashion Mark 2010a;1(3):164–71.

Kim AJ, Ko E. The impact of design characteristics on brand attitude and purchase in- tention: focus on luxury fashion brands. J Korean Soc Clothing Text 2010b;34(2):252–65.

Kim HJ, Lee HZ. The effect of well-being, consumer value orientations, perceived value and brand preference on purchase intention of environment-friendly cosmetics. J Korean Soc Clothing Ind 2009;15(1):327–48.

Kim YS, Chung KY. Hotel brand blog characteristics influencing purchase intention and word-of-mouse communication: blog attitude as an intervening variable: focused on blog users in their 20’s and 30’s. Korean J Hotel Adm 2009;18(3)1-22.

Kim J, Kim JE, Johnson KKP. The customer-salesperson relationship and sales effective- ness in luxury fashion stores: the role of self monitoring. J Glob Fashion Mark 2010;1(4):230–9.

Kim KH, Ko E, Graham H, Lee DH, Jung HS, Jeon BJ. Brand equity and purchase intention in fashion products: a cross-cultural study in Asia and Europe. J Glob Acad Mark Sci 2008;18(4):245–76.

Kim KH, Park SY, Lee S, Knight DK, Xu B, Jeon BJ. Examining the relationships among attitude toward luxury brands, customer equity, and customer lifetime value in a Korean context. J Glob Acad Mark Sci 2010;20(1):27–34.

Ko E, Lee H. A study on relationship between customer equity and customer satisfac- tion of sports fashion brands. J Korean Soc Clothing Text 2009;33(5):785–92.

Ko E, Oh SM. A study on customer equity of luxury brands. J Korean Soc Clothing Text 2009;33(7):1025–37.

Kumar V, George M. Measuring and maximizing customer equity: a critical analysis. J Acad Mark Sci 2007;35:157–71.

L2 Think Tank. L2 Digital IQ index: luxury. available at http://www.l2thinktank.com/luxury2010digitaliq/luxury2010digitaliq.pdf, 2010.

Lee EK. A study on the effect of mobile fashion shopping characteristics and perceived risk on perceived value and purchase intention: focusing on personal innovation and mobile internet lifestyle. Unpublished master’s thesis, Yonsei University, 2007.

Lemon KN, Rust RT, Zeithaml VA. What drives customer equity? Mark Manage 2001;10(1):20–5.

Lloyd AE, Luk STK. The devil wears Prada or Zara: a revelation into customer perceived value of luxury and mass fashion brands. J Glob Fashion Mark 2010;1(3):129–41. LVMH. 2009 annual report. available at http://www.lvmh.com/comfi/pg_rapports.asp? rub=10&srub=3&str_annee=2009, 2010.

Park HH, Jeon JO, Kwak W. The influence of perceived quality and VMD fitness of fashion brand on brand attitude and purchase intention. Korean Mark Manage Res 2007;12(1):55–70.

Richter A, Koch M. Social software — status quo und Zukunft. Technischer Bericht, Nr. 2007–01, Fakultät für Informatik. Universität der Bundeswehr München; 2007.

Rust RT, Zeithaml VA, Lemon KN. Driving customer equity: how customer lifetime value is reshaping corporate strategy. NY: Free Press; 2000.

Rust RT, Lemon KN, Zeithaml VA. Return on marketing: using customer equity to focus marketing strategy. J Mark 2004;68:109–27.

Samsung Design Net. Luxury fashion business using technology. available at http:// www.samsungdesign.net/Report/Report/content.asp?an=589, 2009.

Srivastava RK, Shervani TA, Fahey L. Market-based assets and shareholder value: a framework for analysis. J Mark 1998;62(1):2-18.

Vogel V, Evanschitzky H, Ramaseshan B. Customer equity drivers and future sales. J Mark 2008;72(6):98-108.

Wiedmann KP, Hennings N, Siebels A. Value-based segmentation of luxury consumption behavior. Psychol Mark 2009;26(7):625–51.

Yun SY. A study on measuring and defining customer equity of fashion brand. Unpublished master’s thesis, Yonsei University, 2006.

Yun SY, Ko E. A study on measuring and defining dimensions of fashion product customer equity. J Korean Soc Clothing Text 2006;30(9/10):1389–99.

Zhang H, Ko E, Kim KH. The influences of customer equity drivers on customer equity and loyalty in the sports shoes industry: comparing Korea and China. J Glob Fashion Mark 2010;1(2):110–8.

Measuring Consumers’ Engagement With Brand-Related Social-Media Content

Link

Measuring Consumers’ Engagement With Brand-Related Social-Media Content Development and Validation of a Scale that Identifes Levels of Social-Media Engagement with Brands

Article de catégorie 3: Schivinski, B., Christodoulides, G., Dabrowski, D. (2016). Measuring Consumers’ Engagement With Brand-Related Social-Media Content. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(1).

Mots clés: consumers’ engagement, social media, brand, content, brand-related activities, behavior, creation

  • Idée principale:  Comment mesurer l’engagement des consommateurs face à un contenu social-média, lié à une marque particulière.

Développement:

Les sites de réseaux sociaux tels que Facebook, YouTube et Twitter sont devenus de plus en plus importants dans la vie des consommateurs et dans leurs habitudes de communication. Avec les consommateurs qui s’engagent profondément dans les médias sociaux, une part croissante de la communication se produit au sein de ces nouveaux environnements. Contrairement aux sites Web plutôt statiques, la nature interactive des médias sociaux a finalement changé la façon dont les consommateurs s’engagent avec les marques.

Les auteurs démontrent également que la création de contenu par les utilisateurs est un atout majeur pour les marques. Les consommateurs ont réellement la volonté de s’engager en tant que co-créateurs et reçoivent ce contenu de façon généralement positive.

Le raisonnement des auteurs montre que l’utilisation d’un contenu social média lié a une marque particulière peut avoir des effets sur les variables mesurables de résultat telles que:
• l’extension de la marque
• l’intention d’achat
• le premium price

 

Conclusion :

En produisant continuellement des contenus adaptés, cela devrait inciter les consommateurs à s’engager davantage en commentant, “aimant”, et même en partageant le contenu lié à la marque. En s’engageant dans la dimension contributive, les marques se rapprochent de leurs consommateurs en instaurant un climat de confiance leur permettant de successivement créer du contenu, que ce soit par le biais de messages, de critiques ou encore de recommandations.

En supposant que les perceptions des consommateurs sur la communication entre les médias sociaux diffèrent selon les industries, les chercheurs pourraient également mettre en œuvre d’explorer des profils de similitudes et de différences dans la consommation, la contribution et la création de contenu social-média.

Références bibliographiques :

AAker, J. L. “Dimensions of Brand Personality.” Journal of Marketing Research 34, 3 (1997): 347–356.

ArAuJo, T., P. NeiJeNs, and r. VLiegeNThArT. “What Motivates Consumers to Re-Tweet Brand Con- tent? The Impact of Information, Emotion, and Traceability on Pass-Along Behavior.” Journal of Advertising Research 53, 3 (2015): 1–12.

ArmsTroNg, A., and J. hAgeL iii. “The Real Value of On-Line Communities.” Harvard Business Review 74, May–June (1996): 134–141.

BeLk, r. “You Are What You Can Access: Sharing and Collaborative Consumption Online.” Journal of Business Research 67, 8 (2014): 1595–1600.

BerThoN, P. r., L. PiTT, and C. CAmPBeLL. “Ad Lib: When Customers Create the Ad.” California Man- agement Review 50, 4 (2008): 6–31.

BreTTeL, m., J.-C. reiCh, J. m. gAViLANes, and T. C. FLATTeN. “What Drives Advertising Success on Facebook? An Advertising-Effectiveness Model: Measuring the Effects on Sales of ‘Likes’ and Other Social-Network Stimuli.” Journal of Adver- tising Research 52, 2 (2015): 162–175.

BruhN, m., V. sChoeNmueLLer, and D. B. sChäFer. “Are Social Media Replacing Traditional Media in Terms of Brand Equity Creation?” Management Research Review 35, 9 (2012): 770–790.

BurmANN, C. “A Call for ‘User-Generated Brand- ing.’” Journal of Brand Management 18, 1 (2010): 1–4.

CheVALier, J., and D. mAyzLiN. “The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews.” Journal of Marketing Research 43, 3 (2006): 345–354.

ChrisToDouLiDes, g. “Branding in the Post-Internet Era.” Marketing Theory 9, 1 (2009): 141–144.

ChrisToDouLiDes, g., C. JeVoNs, and J. BoNhomme. “Memo to Marketers: Quantitative Evidence for Change. How User-Generated Content Really Affects Brands.” Journal of Advertising Research 52, 1 (2012): 53–64.

ChurChiLL, g. A. “A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs.” Jour- nal of Marketing Research 16, 1 (1979): 64–73.

CouLTer, k. s., and A. roggeVeeN. “‘Like It or Not’: Consumer Responses to Word-of-Mouth Communication in On-Line Social Networks.” Management Research Review 35, 9 (2012): 878–899.

CrAig, C. s., W. h. greeNe, and A. VersACi. “E-Word of Mouth: Early Predictor of Audience Engagement: How Pre-Release ‘E-WOM’ Drives Box-Office Outcomes of Movies.” Journal of Advertising Research 52, 2 (2015): 62–72.

CuDeCk, r., and m. BroWNe. “Cross-Validation of Covariance Structures.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 18, 2 (1983): 147–167.

DAugherTy, T., m. eAsTiN, and L. BrighT. “Explor- ing Consumer Motivations for Creating User- Generated Content.” Journal of Interactive Advertising 8, 2 (2008): 16–25.

DeLLAroCAs, C., X. zhANg, and N. F. AWAD. “Explor- ing the Value of Online Product Reviews in Fore- casting Sales: The Case of Motion Pictures.” Journal of Interactive Marketing 21, 4 (2007): 23–45.

DhoLAkiA, u. m., r. P. BAgozzi, and L. k. PeAro. “A Social Influence Model of Consumer Par- ticipation in Network- and Small-Group- Based Virtual Communities.” International Journal of Research in Marketing 21, 3 (2004): 241–263.

DiCkiNsoN-DeLAPorTe, s., and g. kerr. “Agency- Generated Research of Consumer-Generated Con- tent: The Risks, Best Practices, and Ethics.” Journal of Advertising Research 54, 4 (2014): 469–478.

FoX, F. e., m. morris, and N. rumsey. “Doing Synchronous Online Focus Groups With Young People: Methodological Re ections.” Qualitative Health Research, 17, 4 (2007): 539–547.

FuLgoNi, g. “Uses and Misuses of Online-Survey Panels in Digital Research: Digging Past the Sur- face.” Journal of Advertising Research 54, 2 (2014): 133–137.

FuLgoNi, g., and A. LiPsmAN. “Digital Word of Mouth and Its Of ine Ampli cation: A Holistic Approach to Leveraging and Amplifying All Forms of WOM.” Journal of Advertising Research 55, 2 (2015): 18–21.

FüLLer, J., m. BArTL, h. erNsT, and h. mühLBACher. “Community Based Innovation: How to Integrate Members of Virtual Communities Into New Product Development.” Electronic Commerce Research 6, 1 (2006): 57–73.

FüLLer, J., h. mühLBACher, k. mATzLer, and g. JAWeCki. “Consumer Empowerment through Internet-Based Co-creation.” Journal of Manage- ment Information Systems 26, 3 (2009): 71–102.

gerBiNg, D., and J. ANDersoN. “An Updated Para- digm for Scale Development Incorporating Uni- dimensionality and Its Assessment.” Journal of Marketing Research 25, 2 (1988): 186–193.

gooDmAN, L. A. “Exploratory Latent Struc- ture Analysis Using Both Indentifiable and Unidenti able Models.” Biometrika 61, 2 (1974): 215–231.

gus CeNTrAL sTATisTiCAL oFFiCe. Demographic Year- book of Poland: Branch Yearbooks. Warsaw, Poland: Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych, 2012.

hAir, J. F., Jr., W. C. BLACk, B. J. BABiN, and r. e. ANDersoN. Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed. Har- low, England: Pearson Education Limited, 2014.

hAuTz, J., J. FüLLer, k. huTTer, and C. ThürriDL. “Let Users Generate Your Video Ads? The Impact of Video Source and Quality on Consumers’ Perceptions and Intended Behaviors.” Journal of Interactive Marketing 28, 1 (2013): 1–15.

hAyes, A. Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2013.

heNNig-ThurAu, T., k. P. gWiNNer, g. WALsh, and D. D. gremLer. “Electronic Word-of-Mouth via Consumer-Opinion Platforms: What Moti- vates Consumers to Articulate Themselves on the Internet?” Journal of Interactive Marketing 18, 1 (2004): 38–52.

ho-DAC, N., s. CArsoN, and W. moore. “The Effects of Positive and Negative Online Customer Reviews: Do Brand Strength and Category Matu- rity Matter?” Journal of Marketing 77, November (2013): 37–53.

hoLLeBeek, L. D., m. s. gLyNN, and r. J. BroDie. “Consumer Brand Engagement in Social Media: Conceptualization, Scale Development and Validation.” Journal of Interactive Marketing 28, 2 (2014): 149–165.

hu, L.-T., and P. m. BeNTLer. “Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives.” Structural Equation Modeling 6, 1 (1999): 1–55.

huNg, k. h., and s. y. Li. “The In uence of eWom on Virtual Consumer Communities: Social Capital, Consumer Learning, and Behavioral Outcomes.” Journal of Advertising Research 47, 4 (2007): 485–495.

keLLer, k. L. “Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity.” Jour- nal of Marketing 57, January (1993): 1–22.

koziNeTs, r. V. “E-Tribalized Marketing? The Strategic Implications of Virtual Communities of Consumption.” European Management Journal 17, 3 (1999): 252–264.

koziNeTs, r. V. “Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the Meanings of Star Trek’s Culture of Consump- tion.” Journal of Consumer Research 28, June (2001): 67–88.

koziNeTs, r. V. “The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities.” Journal of Marketing Research 39, 1 (2002): 61–72.

krishNAmurThy, s., and W. Dou. “Advertising with User-Generated Content: A Framework and Research Agenda.” Journal of Interactive Advertis- ing 8, 2 (2008): 1–4.

LAViDge, s. W., and g. A. sTeiNer. “A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effec- tiviness.” Journal of Marketing 25, 6 (1961): 59–62.

Li, C., and J. BerNoFF. Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 2011.

LoW, g., and C. LAmB Jr. “The Measurement and Dimensionality of Brand Associations.” Journal of Product & Brand Management 9, 6 (2000): 350–370.

muNiz, A. m., Jr., and T. C. o’guiNN. “Brand Community.” Journal of Consumer Research 27, March (2001): 412–433.

muNTiNgA, D. g., m. moormAN, and e. g. smiT. “Introducting COBRAs: Exploring Motivations for Brand-Related Social Media Use.” Interna- tional Journal of Advertising 30, 1 (2011): 13–46.

muThéN, L., and B. muThéN. Statistical Analy- sis with Latent Variables: Mplus User’s Guide, 7th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén, 2012.

NeLsoN-FieLD, k., e. rieBe, and B. shArP. “What’s Not to ‘Like?’ Can a Facebook Fan Base Give a Brand the Advertising Reach it Needs?” Journal of Advertising Research 52, 2 (2012): 262–269.

NuNNALLy, J. Psychometrical Theory, 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1978.

oVieDo-gArCiA, m., m. muNoz-eXPosiTo, m. CAsTeLLANos-VerDugo, and m. shANCho-meJiAs. “Metric Proposal for Customer Engagement in Facebook.” Journal of Research in Interactive Mar- keting 8, 4 (2014): 327–344.

Pires, g. D., J. sTANToN, and P. riTA. “The Internet, Consumer Empowerment and Marketing Strat- egies.” European Journal of Marketing 40, 9/10 (2006): 936–949.

PorNPiTAkPAN, C. “The Persuasiveness of Source Credibility: A Critical Review of Five Decades’ Evidence.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 34, 2 (2004): 243–281.

PrAhALAD, C. k., and V. rAmAsWAmy. “The Co- Creation Connection.” Strategy and Business 27, (2002): 1–12.

sChiViNski, B., and D. DABroWski. “The Effect of Social Media Communication on Consumer Per- ceptions of Brands.” Journal of Marketing Com- munications, ahead of print (2014): 1–26. DOI: 10.1080/13527266.2013.871323

sChiViNski, B., and D. DABroWski. “The Impact of Brand Communication on Brand Equity through Facebook.” Journal of Research in Interactive Mar- keting 9, 1 (2015): 31–53.

sChuLTz, D. e., and J. PeLTier. “Social Media’s Slippery Slope: Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Research Directions.” Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing 7, 2 (2013): 86–89.

shAo, g. “Understanding the Appeal of User- Generated Media: A Uses and Grati cation Per- spective.” Internet Research 19, 1 (2009): 7–25.

shi, z., h. rui, and A. WhiNsToN. “Content Sharing in a Social Broadcasting Environment: Evidence From Twitter.” MIS Quarterly 38, 1 (2014): 123–142

VerNeTTe, e., and L. hAmDi-kiDAr. “Co-Creation With Consumers: Who Has the Competence and Wants to Cooperate?” International Journal of Mar- ket Research 55, 4 (2013): 2–20.

ViLLAreJo-rAmos, A. F., and m. J. sáNChez– FrANCo. “The Impact of Marketing Communi- cation and Price Promotion on Brand Equity.” Journal of Brand Management 12, 6 (2005): 431–444.

WALLACe, e., i. BuiL, L. De CherNAToNy, and m. hogAN. “Who ‘Likes’ You . . . and Why? A Typol- ogy of Facebook Fans: From ‘Fan’-atics and Self-Expressives to Utilitarians and Authentics.” Journal of Advertising Research 54, 1 (2014): 92–109.

WAThieu, L., L. BreNNer, z. CArmoN, A. ChATToPADhAy, k. WerTeNBroCh, A. DroLeT, J. gourViLLe, A. V. muThukrishNAN, et al. “Consumer Control and Empowerment: A Primer.” Marketing Letters 13, 3 (2002): 297–305.

WrighT, L., A. NeWmAN, and C. DeNNis. “Enhanc- ing Consumer Empowerment.” European Journal of Marketing 40, 9/10 (2006): 925–935.

yADAV, m., and P. PAVLou. “Marketing in Computer-Mediated Environments: Research Synthesis and New Directions.” Journal of Mar- keting 78, 1 (2014): 20–40.

yoo, B., and N. DoNThu. “Developing and Vali- dating a Multidimensional Consumer-Based Brand Equity Scale.” Journal of Business Research 52, 1 (2001): 1–14.

zhu, F., and X. (miChAeL) zhANg. “Impact of Online Consumer Reviews on Sales: The Mod- erating Role of Product and Consumer Character- istics.” Journal of Marketing 74, 2 (2010): 133–148.

Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

Lemon, K et Verhoef, P (2016) Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey, Journal of Marketing, 80, 69-96

Mots clés: Customer experience, customer journey, marketing strategy, customer experience management, touch points  

Idée dominante 

L’auteur essaie d’expliquer l’expérience client en donnant les clés de compréhension de définitions antérieures et des éléments de contribution de cette expérience client.

Résumé 

L’expérience client est aujourd’hui plus complexe qu’avant, les clients interagissent maintenant avec les entreprises à travers une multitude de points de contact avec celle-ci, par de nombreux médias et canaux, résultant à une customer journey aussi complexe (Lemon, K et Verhoef, P, 2016).

Il cite Pine et Gilmore, qui pensent que les « expériences » ont différentes des produits et services, quand un consommateur recherche de l’expérience c’est pour « passer du temps à apprécier une série de moments mémorables qu’une compagnie met en scène pour l’engager de manière personnelle (Pine et Gilmore, 1998).

De récentes recherches définissent l’expérience client englobant tous les aspects de l’offre : la qualité du service consommateur, mais aussi de la publicité, le packaging, les caractéristiques du produit ou service, de la facilité d’emploi et de la fiabilité (Meyer et Schwager, 2007).

Différentes contributions importent l’expérience client, trois sont à retenir (Philip Kotler, 1967 ; John Howard et Jagdish Sheth, 1969) :

-> Satisfaction and loyalty : un facteur clé pour comprendre et gérer l’expérience client est l’habilité à mesurer et surveiller les réactions des clients à l’offre, spécialement les attitudes et perceptions. Des études ont fortement évalué et confirmé les effets de la satisfaction sur le comportement client et sur la performance de l’entreprise. Focused on process outcomes (e.g., Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl 2004; Bolton and Drew 1991; Gupta and Zeithaml 2006).

-> Customer relationship management : CRM se concentre sur l’optimisation de la profitabilité des clients et sur la valeur vie client. Research focused on process, behaviour and resulting value (e.g., Kumar and Reinartz 2006; Reinartz, Krafft, and Hoyer 2004).

-> Customer centricity and customer focus : stratégie d’alignement des produits et services d’une entreprise par rapport aux besoins de ses clients ayant le plus de valeur pour elle, pour maximiser la valeur financière de ces clients sur le long terme. Deux outils majeurs aident : les personas et la perspective ‘job-to-be-done ». Focused on internal organizational aspects of customer experience (Fader, 2012).

Une recherche antérieure a démontré les résultats de l’expérience client qui sont la satisfaction client, la fidélité, le bouche à oreille, la profitabilité de client et la CLV (e.g., Bolton 1998 ; Bolton, Lemon, and Verhoef, 2004 ; Verhoef, 2003). Concernant la satisfaction peut être l’un des composants de l’expérience client, en se basant sur les evaluations cognitives du client sur son experience.

L’expérience client peut s’établir en 3 phases : préachat, achat, postachat.

Un moyen d’étude de l’expérience client est la comprehension du parcours client, en cartographiant et en analysant ce parcours, en comprenant les points de contacts tout au long du parcours qui permettent de facilité le dessin de l’expérience, ainsi que comment le mobile influence cette expérience.

Il faut aussi comprendre les options et choix qui s’offrent au client à chaque point de contact.

Service blueprinting : service se basant sur une approche focalisé sur le client pour l’innovation et l’amélioration du service. Le service blueprinting fournit un bon départ pour établir la cartographie du parcours client. L’analyse du parcours client doit comprendre et cartographier le parcours du point de vue du consommateur (Bitner et al., 2008).

Multichannel perspective : Cette méthode prend en considération le comportement quant au choix de la chaîne et offre les clés d’analyse, de gestion et d’influence du parcours client. il inclue des paramètres socio-psychographiques, les avantages et couts perçus, les influences sociales et les instruments du marketing mix, et les comportement des achats passés : utilisation des sondages pour cette analyse (e.g., Ansari, Mela, and Neslin 2008; Bilgicer et al. 2015; Melis et al. 2015).

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

Cet article me donne les clés de compréhension de l’expérience client, de ses conséquences, telles que la satisfaction et me permet de savoir par quelles méthodes l’analyser.

Références bibliographiques

Abbott, Lawrence (1955), Quality and Competition. New York: Columbia University Press.

Accenture (2015), “Improving Customer Experience Is Top Busi- ness Priority for Companies Pursuing Digital Transformation, According to Accenture Study,” news release, (October 27), [available at https://newsroom.accenture.com/news/improving- customer-experience-is-top-business-priority-for-companies- pursuing-digital-transformation-according-to-accenture-study.htm].

Alderson, Wroe (1957), Marketing Behavior and Executive Action: A Functionalist Approach to Marketing Theory. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

Anderl, Eva, Jan Hendrik Schumann, and Werner Kunz (2016), “Helping Firms Reduce Complexity in Multichannel Online Data: A New Taxonomy-Based Approach for Customer Jour- neys,” Journal of Retailing, 92 (2), 185–203.

Anderson, Eugene W., Claes Fornell, and Sanal K. Mazvancheryl (2004), “Customer Satisfaction and Shareholder Value,” Journal of Marketing, 68 (October), 172–85.

——— and Vikas Mittal (2000), “Strengthening the Satisfaction– Profit Chain,” Journal of Service Research, 3 (2), 107–20.

Ansari, Asim, Carl F. Mela, and Scott A. Neslin (2008), “Customer Channel Migration,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (February), 60–76.

Arnould, Eric J. and Linda L. Price (1993), “River Magic: Extra-ordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter”, Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (June), 24–45.

Ataman, M. Berk, Carl F. Mela, and Harald J. Van Heerde (2008), “Building Brands,” Marketing Science, 27 (6), 1036–54.

Bagozzi, Richard P., M. Gopinath, and P.U. Nyer (1999), “The Role of Emotions in Marketing,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27 (2), 184–206.

Baker, Julie, A. Parasuraman, Dhruv Grewal and Glenn B. Voss (2002), “The Influence of Multiple Store Environment Cues on Perceived Merchandise Value and Patronage Intentions,” Journal of Marketing, 66 (April), 120–41.

Barnes, Brooks (2013), “The Digital Kingdom: At Disney Parks, a Bracelet Meant to Build Loyalty (and Sales),” New York Times, (January 7), B1.

Bart, Yakov, Andrew T. Stephen, and Miklos Sarvary (2014), “Which Products Are Best Suited to Mobile Advertising? A Field Study of Mobile Display Advertising Effects on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions,” Journal of Marketing Research, 51 (June), 270–85.

Baxendale, Shane, Emma K. Macdonald, and Hugh N. Wilson (2015), “The Impact of Different Touchpoints on Brand Con- sideration,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 235–53.

Beckers, Sander F., Hans Risselada, and Peter C. Verhoef (2014), “Customer Engagement: A New Frontier in Customer Value Management,” in Handbook of Service Research, R.T. Rust and H.H. Ming, eds. Cheltenham, MA: Edward Elgar.

Berry, Leonard L. (1995), “Relationship Marketing of Services: Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (4), 236–45.

———, Lewis P. Carbone, and Stephan H. Haeckel (2002), “Managing the Total Customer Experience,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 43 (3), 85–89.
———, Kathleen Seiders, and Dhruv Grewal (2002), “Understanding Service Convenience,” Journal of Marketing, 66 (July), 1–17.
Bhattacharya, Chitrabhan B. and Sankar Sen (2003), “Consumer–Company Identification: A Framework for Understanding Consumers’ Relationships with Companies,” Journal of Mar- keting, 67 (April), 76–88.

Bijmolt, Tammo H.A. and Peter C. Verhoef (2016), “Loyalty Program: Current Insights, Analytical Challenges and Emerging Trends,” in Handbook of Marketing Decision Models. Berend Wierenga and Ralf van der Lans, eds. Berlin: Springer, forthcoming.

Bilgicer, Tolga, Kamel Jedidi, Donald R. Lehmann, and Scott A. Neslin (2015), “Social Contagion and Customer Adoption of New Sales Channels,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 254–71.

Bitner, Mary Jo (1990), “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (April), 69–82.

——— (1992), “Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surround- ings on Customers and Employees,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (April), 57–71.

———, Amy L. Ostrom, and Felicia N. Morgan (2008), “Service Blueprinting: A Practical Technique for Service Innovation,” California Management Review, 50 (3), 66–94.

Bodine, Kerry (2013), “The Customer Experience Ecosystem,” research report, Forrester Research.

Bolton, Ruth N. (1998), “A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customer’s Relationship with a Continuous Service Provider:

The Role of Satisfaction,” Marketing Science, 17 (1), 45–65.

——— (2016), Service Excellence: Creating Customer Experiences that Build Relationships. New York: Business Expert Press.

——— and James H. Drew (1991), “A Multistage Model of Cus- tomers’ Assessment of Service Quality and Value,” Journal of

Consumer Research, 17 (4), 375–84.

———, Anders Gustafsson, Janet McColl-Kennedy, Nancy J.

Sirianni, and David K. Tse (2014), “Small Details That Make Big Differences: A Radical Approach to Consumption Experience as a Firm’s Differentiating Strategy,” Journal of Service Man- agement, 25 (2), 253–74.

——— and Katherine N. Lemon (1999), “A Dynamic Model of Customers’ Usage of Services: Usage as an Antecedent and Consequence of Satisfaction,” Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (May), 171–86.

———, ———, and Matthew D. Bramlett (2006), “The Effect of Service Experiences over Time on a Supplier’s Retention of Business Customers,” Management Science, 52 (12), 1811–23.

———, ———, and Peter C. Verhoef (2004), “The Theoretical Underpinnings of Customer Asset Management: A Framework and Propositions for Future Research,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (3), 271–92.

———, ———, and ——— (2008), “Expanding Business-to- Business Customer Relationships: Modeling the Customer’s Upgrade Decision,” Journal of Marketing, 72 (January), 46–64.

Brakus, J. Joˆsko, Bernd H. Schmitt, and Lia Zarantonello (2009), “Brand Experience: What Is It? How Is It Measured? Does It Affect Loyalty?” Journal of Marketing, 73 (May), 52–68.

Brasel, S. Adam and James Gips (2014), “Tablets, Touchscreens, and Touchpads: How Varying Touch Interfaces Trigger Psy- chological Ownership and Endowment,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24 (2), 226–33.

——— and ——— (2015), “Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Net- working, 18 (September), 534–38.

Brinker, Mike, Kasey Lobaugh, and Alison Paul (2012), “The Dawn of Mobile Influence: Discovering the Value of Mobile in Retail,” Deloitte Digital (June) (accessed December 17, 2014), [available at http://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/ consumer-business/us-retail-mobile-influence-factor-062712.pdf].

Brodie, Roderick J., Linda D. Hollebeek, Biljana Juric, and Ana Ilic (2011), “Customer Engagement: Conceptual Domain, Funda- mental Propositions, and Implications for Research,” Journal of Service Research, 14 (3), 252–71.

———, Ana Ilic, Biljana Juric, and Linda Hollebeek (2013), “Con- sumer Engagement in a Virtual Brand Community: An Exploratory Analysis,” Journal of Business Research, 66 (1), 105–14.

Broniarczyk, Susan M., Wayne D. Hoyer, and Leigh McAlister (1998), “Consumers’ Perceptions of the Assortment Offered in a Grocery Category: The Impact of Item Reduction,” Journal of Marketing Research, 35 (May), 166–76.

Brynjolfsson, Erik, Yu Jeffrey Hu, and Mohammed S. Rahman (2013), “Competing in the Age of Omnichannel Retailing,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 54 (4), 23–29.

Bu ̈gel, Marnix S. (2010), “The Application of Psychological Theories for an Improved Understanding of Customer Rela- tionships,” doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.

———, Peter C. Verhoef, and Abraham P. Buunk (2011), “Cus- tomer Intimacy and Commitment to Relationships with Firms in Five Different Sectors: Preliminary Evidence,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18 (4), 247–58.

Burnham, Thomas, Judy K. Frels, and Vijay Mahajan (2003), “Con- sumer Switching Costs: A Typology, Antecedents, and Consequences,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31 (2), 109–26.

Calder, Bobby J., Matthew S. Isaac, and Edward C. Malthouse (2016), “How to Capture Consumer Experiences: A Context- Specific Approach to Measuring Engagement,” Journal of Advertising Research, 56 (1), 39–52.

Cao, Lanlan and Li Li (2015), “The Impact of Cross-Channel Integration on Retailers’ Sales Growth,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 198–216.

Chaffey, Dave (2016), “Mobile Marketing Statistics Compilation,” (accessed April 28, 2016), [available at http://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobile-marketing-statistics/].

Chandler, Jennifer D. and Robert F. Lusch (2015), “Service Systems: A Broadened Framework and Research Agenda on Value Propositions, Engagement, and Service Experience,” Journal of Service Research, 18 (1), 6–22.

Chen, Hsinchun, Roger H.L. Chiang, and Veda C. Storey (2012), “Business Intelligence and Analytics: From Big Data to Big Impact,” Management Information Systems Quarterly, 36 (4), 1165–88.

Chevalier, Judith A. and Dina Mayzlin (2006), “The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (August), 345–54.

Christensen, Clayton M., Scott D. Anthony, Gerald Berstell, and Denise Nitterhouse (2007), “Finding the Right Job for Your Product,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 48 (3), 38–47.

———, Scott Cook, and Taddy Hall (2005), “Marketing Mal- practice: The Cause and the Cure,” Harvard Business Review, 83 (12), 74–83.

Chung, Tuck Siong, Roland T. Rust, and Michel Wedel (2009), “My Mobile Music: An Adaptive Personalization System for Digital Audio Players,” Marketing Science, 28 (1), 52–68.

Court, David, Dave Elzinga, Susan Mulder, and Ole Jørgen Vetvik (2009), “The Consumer Decision Journey,” McKinsey Quar- terly, 2009 (3), 96–107.

Cronin, Joseph J., Jr., and Steven A. Taylor (1992), “Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (July), 55–68.

——— and ——— (1994), “SERVPERF Versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling Performance-Based and Perceptions-Minus Ex- pectations Measurement of Service Quality,” Journal of Mar- keting, 58 (January), 125–31.

De Haan, Evert, P.K. Kannan, Peter C. Verhoef, and Thorsten Wiesel (2015), “The Role of Mobile Devices in the Online Customer Journey,” MSI Working Paper No. 15-124. Cam- bridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.

———, Peter C. Verhoef, and Thorsten Wiesel (2015), “The Predictive Ability of Different Customer Feedback Metrics for Retention,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32 (2), 195–206.

———, Thorsten Wiesel, and Koen Pauwels (2016), “The Effec- tiveness of Different Forms of Online Advertising for Purchase Conversion in a Multiple-Channel Attribution Framework,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, forthcoming, [DOI: 10.1016/j.ijresmar.2015.12.001].

De Keyser, Arne, Katherine N. Lemon, Timothy Keiningham, and Philipp Klaus (2015), “A Framework for Understanding and Managing the Customer Experience,” MSI Working Paper No. 15-121. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.

———, Jeroen Schepers, and Umut Konus ̧ (2015), “Multichannel Customer Segmentation: Does the After-Sales Channel Matter? A Replication and Extension,” International Journal of Re- search in Marketing, 32 (4), 453–56.

De Vries, Lisette, Sonja Gensler, and Peter S.H. Leeflang (2012), “Popularity of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages: An Investigation of the Effects of Social Media Marketing,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26 (2), 83–91.

De Wulf, Kristof, Gaby Odekerken-Schro ̈der, and Dawn Iacobucci (2001), “Investments in Consumer Relationships: A Cross- Country and Cross-Industry Exploration,” Journal of Market- ing, 65 (October), 33–50.

Dixon, M., K. Freeman, and N. Toman (2010), “Stop Trying to Delight Your Customers,” Harvard Business Review, 88 (7/8), 116–22.

Dorotic, Matilda, Tammo H.A. Bijmolt, and Peter C. Verhoef (2012), “Loyalty Programmes: Current Knowledge and Research Directions,” International Journal of Management Reviews, 14 (3), 217–37.

———, Dennis Fok, Peter C. Verhoef, and Tammo H.A. Bijmolt (2011), “Do Vendors Benefit from Promotions in a Multi- Vendor Loyalty Program?” Marketing Letters, 22 (4), 341–56.

Dwyer, F. Robert, Paul H. Schurr, and Sejo Oh (1987), “Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 51 (April), 11–27.

Eastlick, Mary Ann and Richard A. Feinberg (1999), “Shopping Motives for Mail Catalog Shoppers,” Journal of Business Research, 45 (3), 281–99.

Edelman, David C. (2010), “Branding in the Digital Age,” Harvard Business Review, 88 (12), 62–69.

——— and Marc Singer (2015), “Competing on Customer Jour- neys,” Harvard Business Review, 93 (November), 88–100. Edwards, Gary (2014), “How to Embrace Retail’s Newest Trend:

Webrooming,” Retail TouchPoints Blog, [available at http:// retailtouchpoints.tumblr.com/post/59107311088/how-to-embrace- retails-newest-trend-webrooming].

Elberse, Anita (2010), “Bye-Bye Bundles: The Unbundling of Music in Digital Channels,” Journal of Marketing, 74 (May), 107–23. Emrich, Oliver, Michael Paul, and Thomas Rudolph (2015),

“Shopping Benefits of Multichannel Assortment Integration and the Moderating Role of Retailer Type,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 326–42.

——— and Peter C. Verhoef (2015), “The Impact of a Homogenous Versus a Prototypical Web Design on Online Retail Patronage for Multichannel Providers,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 32 (4), 363–74.

Fader, Peter (2012), Customer Centricity: Focus on the Right Customers for Strategic Advantage. Philadelphia: Wharton Digital Press.

Falk, Tomas, Jeroen Schepers, Maik Hammerschmidt, and Hans H. Buer (2007), “Identifying Cross-Channel Dissynergies for Multichannel Service Providers,” Journal of Service Research, 10 (2), 143–60.

Fornell, Claes, Roland T. Rust, and Marnik G. Dekimpe (2010), “The Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Consumer Spending Growth,” Journal of Marketing Research, 47 (February), 28–35.

Fournier, Susan (1998), “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” Journal of Con- sumer Research, 24 (March), 343–53.

Frey, Bruno S. and Alois Stutzer (2002), “What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?” Journal of Economic Liter- ature, 40 (2), 402–35.

Gensler, Sonja, Peter S.H. Leeflang, and Bernd Skiera (2012), “Impact of Online Channel Use on Customer Revenues and Costs to Serve: Considering Product Portfolios and Self- Selection,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29 (2), 192–201.

———, Peter C. Verhoef, and Martin Bo ̈hm (2012), “Under- standing Consumers’ Multichannel Choices Across the Differ- ent Stages of the Buying Process,” Marketing Letters, 23 (4), 987–1003.

Gentile, Chiara, Nicola Spiller, and Giuliano Noci (2007), “How to Sustain the Customer Experience: An Overview of Experience Components That Co-Create Value with the Customer,” Euro- pean Management Journal, 25 (5), 395–410.

Geyskens, Inge, Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp, and Nirmalya Kumar (1998), “Generalizations About Trust in Marketing Channel Relationships Using Meta-Analysis,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15 (3), 223–48.

Gijsenberg, Maarten J., Harald J. van Heerde, and Peter C. Verhoef (2015), “Losses Loom Longer Than Gains: Modeling the Impact of Service Crisis on Perceived Service Quality over Time,” Journal of Marketing Research, 52 (October), 642–56.

Gomez, Miguel I., Edward W. McLaughlin, and Dick R. Wittink (2004), “Customer Satisfaction and Retail Sales Performance: An Empirical Investigation,” Journal of Retailing, 80 (4), 265–78.

Grewal, Dhruv, Michael Levy, and V. Kumar (2009), “Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Frame- work,” Journal of Retailing, 85 (March), 1–14.

Gulati, Ranjay and James B. Oldroyd (2005), “The Quest for Customer Focus,” Harvard Business Review, 83 (April), 92–101. Gupta, Sunil, Donald R. Lehmann, and Jennifer A. Stuart (2004), “Valuing Customers,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (February), 7–18.
——— and Valarie Zeithaml (2006), “Customer Metrics and Their Impact on Financial Performance,” Marketing Science, 25 (6), 718–39.

Ha, Anthony (2015), “VU Digital Translates Videos into Structured Data,” Techcrunch, (May 4), [available at http://techcrunch.com/2015/05/04/video-to-data/].

Hanssens, Dominique M. (2015), Empirical Generalizations About Marketing Impact, 2d ed. Cambridge, MA: Marketing ScienceInstitute.
———, Koen H. Pauwels, Shuba Srinivasan, Marc Vanhuele, and Gokhan Yildirim (2014), “Consumer Attitude Metrics for Guiding Marketing Mix Decisions,” Marketing Science, 33 (4), 534–50.

Herhausen, Dennis, Jochen Binder, Marcus Schoegel, and Andreas Herrman (2015), “Integrating Bricks with Clicks: Retailer-Level and Channel-Level Outcomes of Online-Offline Channel Inte- gration,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 309–25.

Herskovitz, Stephan and Malcolm Crystal (2010), “The Essential Brand Persona: Storytelling and Branding,” Journal of Business Strategy, 31 (3), 21–28.

Hirschman, Elizabeth C. and Morris B. Holbrook (1982), “Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods, and Propositions,” Journal of Marketing, 46 (July), 92–101.

Hitt, Lorin M. and Frances X. Frei (2002), “Do Better Customers Utilize Electronic Distribution Channels? The Case of PC Bank- ing,” Management Science, 48 (6), 732–49.

Holbrook, Morris B. and Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1982), “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (2), 132–40.

Hollebeek, Linda D., Mark S. Glynn, and Roderick J. Brodie (2014), “Consumer Brand Engagement in Social Media: Concep- tualization, Scale Development, and Validation,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28 (2), 149–65.

Homburg, Christian, Danjiel Jozic ́, and Christina Kuehnl (2015), “Customer Experience Management: Toward Implementing an Evolving Marketing Concept,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, (published electronically August 19), [DOI: 10.1007/s11747-015-0460-7].

Howard, John A. and Jagdish Sheth (1969), The Theory of Buyer Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hoyer, Wayne D. (1984), “An Examination of Consumer Decision Making for a Common Repeat Purchase Product,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (December), 822–29.

———, Rajesh Chandy, Matilda Dorotic, Manfred Krafft, and Siddarth S. Singh (2010), “Consumer Co-Creation in New Product Development,” Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 283–305.

——— and Deborah MacInnis (2007), Consumer Behavior. Bos- ton: Houghton Mifflin.

Hui, Sam K., Jeffrey J. Inman, Yanliu Huang, and Jacob Suher (2013), “The Effect of In-Store Travel Distance on Unplanned Spending: Applications to Mobile Promotion Strategies,” Journal of Marketing, 77 (March), 1–16.

Hunneman, Auke, Peter C. Verhoef, and Laurens M. Sloot (2015), “The Impact of Consumer Confidence on Store Satisfaction and Share of Wallet Formation,” Journal of Retailing, 52 (5), 642–56.

Husson, Thomas, Julie A. Ask, Carrie Johnson, Melissa Parrish, and Emily Kwan (2014), “Predictions 2014: Mobile Trends for Marketers,” research report, Forrester Research.

Iyengar, Sheena S. and Mark R. Lepper (2000), “When Choice Is Demotivating: Can One Desire Too Much of a Good Thing?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79 (6), 995–1006.

Keiningham, Timothy L., Bruce Cooil, Tor Wallin Andreassen, and Lerzan Aksoy (2007), “A Longitudinal Examination of Net Promoter and Firm Revenue Growth,” Journal of Marketing, 71 (July), 39–51.

———, ———, Edward C. Malthouse, Alexander Buoye, Lerzan Aksoy, Arne De Keyser, et al. (2015), “Perceptions are Relative: An Examination of the Relationship Between Relative Sat- isfaction Metrics and Share of Wallet,” Journal of Service Man- agement, 26 (1), 2–43.

Kelley, Scott W. and Mark A. Davis (1994), “Antecedents to Customer Expectations for Service Recovery,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (December), 52–61.

Klaus, Philipp (2015), Measuring Customer Experience: How to Develop and Execute the Most Profitable Customer Experience Strategies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

——— and Stan Maklan (2012), “EXQ: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Service Experience,” Journal of Service Management, 23 (1), 5–33.

——— and ——— (2013), “Towards a Better Measure of Cus- tomer Experience,” International Journal of Market Research, 55 (2), 227–46.

Klesse, Anne-Kathrin, Jonathan Levav, and Caroline Goukens (2015), “The Effect of Preference Expression Modality on Self- Control,” Journal of Consumer Research, 42 (4), 535–50.

Ko, Eunju, Eun Young Kim, and Eun Kyung Lee (2009), “Modeling Consumer Adoption of Mobile Shopping for Fashion Products in Korea,” Psychology and Marketing, 26 (7), 669–87.

Kohli, Ajay K., Bernard J. Jaworski, and Ajith Kumar (1993), “MARKOR: A Measure of Market Orientation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (November), 467–77.

Konus ̧, Umut, Peter C. Verhoef, and Scott A. Neslin (2008), “Multi- channel Shopper Segments and their Covariates,” Journal of Retailing, 84 (4), 398–413.

———, Scott A. Neslin, and Peter C. Verhoef (2014), “The Effect of Search Channel Elimination on Purchase Incidence, Order Size, and Channel Choice,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31 (1), 49–64.

Kotler, Philip (1967), Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

——— and Kevin Lane Keller (2015), Marketing Management, 15th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kuang, Cliff (2015), “Disney’s $1 Billion Bet on a Magical Wristband,” Wired, (March 10), [available at http://www.wired. com/2015/03/disney-magicband].

Kumar, V., Lerzan Aksoy, Bas Donkers, Rajkumar Venkatesan, Thorsten Wiesel, and Sebastian Tillmans (2010), “Undervalued or Overvalued Customers: Capturing Total Customer Engagement Value,” Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 297–310.

———, Vikram Bhaskaran, Rohan Mirchandani, and Milap Shah (2013), “Creating a Measurable Social Media Marketing Strategy: Increasing the Value and ROI of Intangibles and Tangibles for Hokey Pokey,” Marketing Science, 32 (2), 194–212.

——— and Anita Pansari (2016), “Competitive Advantage Through Engagement,” Journal of Marketing Research, 53 (August), 497–516.

———, J. Andrew Petersen, and Robert P. Leone (2010), “Driving Profitability by Encouraging Customer Referrals: Who, When, and How,” Journal of Marketing, 74 (5), 1–17.

——— and Werner Reinartz (2006), Customer Relationship Management: A Databased Approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

——— and ——— (2016), “Creating Enduring Customer Value,”Journal of Marketing, 80 (November), 36–68.

——— and Denish Shah (2009), “Expanding the Role of Mar- keting: From Customer Equity to Market Capitalization,” Journal of Marketing, 73 (November), 119–36.

———, Nita Umashankar, Kihyun Hannah Kim, and Yashoda Bhagwat (2014), “Assessing the Influence of Economic and Customer Experience Factors on Service Purchase Behaviors,” Marketing Science, 33 (5), 673–92.

Kunz, Werner H. and Jens Hogreve (2011), “Toward a Deeper Understanding of Service Marketing: The Past, the Present, and the Future,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 28 (3), 231–47.

Kusinitz, Sam (2014), “The Definition of a Buyer Persona [in Under 100 Words],” Hubspot, (March 8), [available at http://blog. hubspot.com/marketing/buyer-persona-definition-under-100-sr].

Lavidge, Robert J. and Gary A. Steiner (1961), “A Model for Pre- dictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Marketing, 25 (November), 59–62.

Leeflang, Peter S.H., Penny N. Spring, Jenny Van Doorn, and Tom J. Wansbeek (2013), “Identifying the Direct Mail-Prone Con- sumer,” Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 23 (2), 175–95.

———, Peter C. Verhoef, Peter Dahlstro ̈m, and Tjark Freundt (2014), “Challenges and Solutions for Marketing in a Digital Era,” European Management Journal, 32 (1), 1–12.

Lemke, Fred, Moira Clark, and Hugh Wilson (2011), “Customer Experience Quality: An Exploration in Business and Consumer Contexts Using Repertory Grid Technique,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 39 (6), 846–69.

Lemon, Katherine N. and Florian Van Wangenheim (2009), “The Reinforcing Effects of Loyalty Program Partnerships and Core Service Usage: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of Service Research, 11 (May), 357–70.

Lervik-Olsen, Line, Rutger van Oest, and Peter C. Verhoef (2015). “When Is Customer Satisfaction ‘Locked’? A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction Stickiness,” working paper, BI Nor- wegian Business School.

Lewinski, Peter (2015), “Automated Facial Coding Software Out- performs People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets,” Frontiers in Psychology, 6, article 1386 [DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01386].

Lewis, Michael (2006), “Customer Acquisition Promotions and Customer Asset Value,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (May), 195–203.

Li, Hongshuang and P.K. Kannan (2014), “Attributing Conversions in a Multichannel Online Marketing Environment: An Empirical Model and a Field Experiment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 51 (1), 40–56.

Libai, Barak, Ruth Bolton, Marnix S. Bu ̈gel, Ko de Ruyter, Oliver Go ̈tz, Hans Risselada, et al. (2010), “Customer-to-Customer Interactions: Broadening the Scope of Word of Mouth Re- search,” Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 267–82.

Lin, Jiun-Sheng Chris and Haw-Yi Liang (2011), “The Influence of Service Environments on Customer Emotion and Service Out- comes,” Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21 (4), 350–72.

Ma, Yy, Kusum L. Ailawadi, Dinesh K. Gauri, and Dhruv Grewal (2011), “An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Gasoline Prices on Grocery Shopping Behavior,” Journal of Marketing, 75 (March), 18–35.

Macdonald, Emma K., Hugh N. Wilson, and Umut Konus ̧ (2012), “Better Customer Insight—in Real Time,” Harvard Business Review, 90 (9), 102–08.

MacKenzie, Scott B. and Richard J. Lutz (1989), “An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context,” Journal of Mar- keting Research, 53 (May), 48–65.

Maklan, Stan and Philipp Klaus (2011), “Customer Experience: Are We Measuring the Right Things?” International Journal of Market Research, 53 (6), 771–92.

Malthouse, Edward and Bobby Calder (2011), “Engagement and Experiences: Comment on Brodie, Hollenbeek, Juric, and Ilic (2011),” Journal of Service Research, 14 (3), 272–79.

Manchanda, Puneet, Jean-Pierre Dube ́, Khim Yong Goh, and Pradeep K. Chintagunta (2006), “The Effect of Banner Adver- tising on Internet Purchasing,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (February), 98–108.

———, Grant Packard, and Adithya Pattabhiramaiah (2015), “Social Dollars: The Economic Impact of Customer Participation in a Firm-Sponsored Online Customer Community,” Marketing Science, 34 (3), 367–87.

Marketing Science Institute (2014), “Research Priorities 2014–2016.” Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, [available at http:// www.msi.org/uploads/files/MSI_RP14-16.pdf].

——— (2016), “Research Priorities 2016–2018.” Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute, [available at http://www.msi.org/ uploads/articles/MSI_RP16-18.pdf].

McAlister, Leigh and Edgar Pessemier (1982), “Variety Seeking Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Review,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (December), 311–22.

McCarthy, John and Peter Wright (2004), Technology as Experi- ence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Melis, Kristina, Katia Campo, Els Breugelmans, and Lamey Lien (2015), “The Impact of the Multi-Channel Retail Mix on On- line Store Choice: Does Online Experience Matter?” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 272–88.

Meuter, Matthew L., Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, and Mary J. Bitner (2000), “Self-Service Technologies: Under- standing Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters,” Journal of Marketing, 64 (July), 50–65.

Meyer, Christopher and Andre Schwager (2007), “Understanding Customer Experience,” Harvard Business Review, 85 (2), 117–26.

Mittal, Vikas, Pankaj Kumar, and Michael Tsiros (1999), “Attribute- Level Performance, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions Over Time: A Consumption-System Approach,” Journal of Market- ing, 63 (April), 88–101.

Mogenson, David (2015), “I Want-to-Do Moments: From Home to Beauty,” Think with Google, [available at https://www. thinkwithgoogle.com/articles/i-want-to-do-micro-moments.html].

Morgan, Neil A. and Lopo Leotte Rego (2006), “The Value of Dif- ferent Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Metrics in Predicting Business Performance,” Marketing Science, 25 (5), 426–39.

Morgan, Robert M. and Shelby D. Hunt (1994), “The Commitment– Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 58 (July), 20–38.

Neslin, Scott A., Dhruv Grewal, Robert Leghorn, Venkatesh Shankar, Marije L. Teerling, Jacquelyn S. Thomas, et al. (2006), “Challenges and Opportunities in Multichannel Customer Management,” Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 95–112.

——— and Venkatesh Shankar (2009), “Key Issues in Multi- channel Customer Management: Current Knowledge and Future Directions,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23 (1), 70–81.

Nobel, Karman (2011), “Clay Christensen’s Milkshake Marketing,” HBS Working Knowledge (February 14), [available at http:// hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6496.html].

Ofir, Chezy and Itamar Simonson (2007), “The Effect of Stating Expectations on Customer Satisfaction and Shopping Experi- ence,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44 (February), 164–74.

Oliver, Richard L. (1980), “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions,” Journal of Mar- keting Research, 17 (November), 460–69.

——— (1993), “Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (December), 418–30.

———, Roland Rust, and S. Varki (1997), “Customer Delight: Foundations, Findings, and Managerial Insight,” Journal of Re- tailing, 73 (3), 311–36.

Onishi, Hiroshi and Puneet Manchanda (2012), “Marketing Activity, Blogging and Sales,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29 (3), 221–34.

Ou, Yi-Chun, Lisette de Vries, Thorsten Wiesel, and Peter C. Verhoef (2014), “The Role of Consumer Confidence in Creating Customer Loyalty,” Journal of Service Research, 17 (3), 339–54.

———, Peter C. Verhoef, and Thorsten Wiesel (2016), “The Effects of Customer Equity Drivers on Loyalty Intentions Across Industries and Firms,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, forthcoming [DOI: 10.1007/s11747-016-0477-6].

Palmatier, Robert W., Srinath Gopalakrishna, and Mark B. Houston (2006), “Returns on Business-to-Business Relationship Mar- keting Investments: Strategies for Leveraging Profits,” Mar- keting Science, 25 (5), 477–93.

Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard Berry (1988), “SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality,” Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), 12–40.

———, ———, and Arvind Malhotra (2005), “E-S-Qual: A Multiple- Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality,” Journal of Service Research, 7 (3), 213–33.

Pauwels, Koen, Zeynep Aksehirli, and Andrew Lackman (2016), “Like the Ad or the Brand? Marketing Stimulates Different Electronic Word-of-Mouth Content to Drive Online and Offline Performance,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, forthcoming [DOI: doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2016.01.005].

Patr ́ıcio, Lia, Raymond P. Fisk, and Larry Constantine (2011), “Multilevel Service Design: From Customer Value Constellation to Service Experience Blueprinting,” Journal of Service Research, 14 (2), 180–200.

———, ———, and João Falcão e Cunha (2008), “Designing Multi-Interface Service Experiences: The Service Experience Blueprint,” Journal of Service Research, 10 (4), 318–34.

Payne, Adrian and Pennie Frow (2005), “A Strategic Framework for Customer Relationship Management,” Journal of Marketing, 69 (October), 167–76.

Peterson, Tim (2015), “YouTube’s Most Native Ad Yet Puts Shoppable Cards into Organic Videos,” Ad Age, (September 29), [available at http://adage.com/article/digital/youtube-shopping- ads-akin-google-search-ads-pre-rolls/300635/].

Pieters, Rik, Hans Baumgartner, and Doug Allen (1995), “A Means- End Chain Approach to Consumer Goal Structures,” Interna- tional Journal of Research in Marketing, 12 (October), 227–44.

Pine, B. Joseph, II, and James H. Gilmore (1998), The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater and Every Business a Stage. Cam- bridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Plassmann, Hilke, Vinod Venkatraman, Scott Huettel, and Carolyn Yoon (2015), “Consumer Neuroscience: Applications, Chal- lenges, and Possible Solutions,” Journal of Marketing Research, 52 (August), 427–35.

Prahalad, C.K. and Venkatram Ramaswamy (2003), “The New Frontier of Experience Innovation,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (4), 12–18.

Provan, Keith G. and Patrick Kenis (2007), “Modes of Network Governance: Structure, Management, and Effectiveness,” Jour- nal of Public Administration: Research and Theory, 18 (2), 229–52.

Pruitt, John and Tamara Adlin (2006), Persona Life Cycle: Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.

Pucinelli, Nancy M., Ronald C. Goodstein, Dhruv Grewal, Robert Price, Priya Raghubir, and David Stewart (2009), “Customer Experience Management in Retailing: Understanding the Buying Process,” Journal of Retailing, 85 (March), 15–30.

Ramani, Girish and V. Kumar (2008), “Interaction Orientation and Firm Performance,” Journal of Marketing, 72 (January), 27–45.

Rapp, Adam, Thomas L. Baker, Daniel G. Bachrach, Jessica Ogilvie, and Lauren S. Beitelspacher (2015), “Perceived Cus- tomer Showrooming Behavior and the Effect on Retail Sales- person Self-Efficacy and Performance,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 358–69.

Rathmell, John M. (1966), “What Is Meant by Services?” Journal of Marketing, 30 (October), 32–36.

Rawson, Alex, Ewan Duncan, and Conor Jones (2013), “The Truth About Customer Experience,” Harvard Business Review, 91 (September), 90–98.

Rego, Lopo L., Neil A. Morgan, and Claes Fornell (2013), “Reexamining the Market Share–Customer Satisfaction Relationship,” Journal of Marketing, 77 (September), 1–20.

Reichheld, Frederick F. (2003), “The One Number You Need to Grow,” Harvard Business Review, 81 (December), 46–55.

Reinartz, Werner, Manfred Krafft, and Wayne Hoyer (2004), “The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (August), 293–305.

——— and V. Kumar (2000), “On the Profitability of Long- Life

Customers in a Noncontractual Setting: An Empirical Investigation and Implications for Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 64 (October), 17–35.

———, Jacquelyn S. Thomas, and V. Kumar (2005), “Balancing Acquisition and Retention Resources to Maximize Customer Profitability,” Journal of Marketing, 69 (January), 63–79.

Risselada, Hans, Peter C. Verhoef, and Tammo H.A. Bijmolt (2014), “Dynamic Effects of Social Influence and Direct Mar- keting on the Adoption of High-Technology Products,” Journal of Marketing, 78 (March), 52–68.

Roberts, John H., Ujwal Kayande ́, and Stefan Stremersch (2014), “From Academic Research to Marketing Practice: Exploring the Marketing Science Value Chain,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 31 (2), 127–40.

Robertson, Thomas T. and Hal H. Kassarjian, eds (1991), Handbook of Consumer Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rust, Roland T. and Tuck Siong Chung (2006), “Marketing Models of Service and Relationships,” Marketing Science, 25 (6), 560–80. ———, Katherine N. Lemon, and Valarie A. Zeithaml (2004),

“Return on Marketing: Using Customer Equity to Focus Mar- keting Strategy,” Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 109–27.

——— and Richard L. Oliver (2000), “Should We Delight the Customer?” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (1), 86–94.

———, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Katherine N. Lemon (2000), Driving Customer Equity: How Customer Lifetime Value Is Reshaping Corporate Strategy. New York: The Free Press.

Sampson, Scott (2012), “Visualizing Service Operations,” Journal of Service Research, 15 (2), 182–98.

Schmidt-Subramanian, Maxie (2014), “The State of Voice of the Customer Programs, 2014: It’s Time to Act,” research report, Forrester Research.

Schmitt, Bernd H. (1999), Experiential Marketing. New York: The Free Press.

——— (2003), Customer Experience Management: A Revolu- tionary Approach to Connecting with Your Customers. New York: The Free Press.

——— (2011), “Experience Marketing: Concepts, Frameworks and Consumer Insights,” Foundations and Trends in Marketing, 5 (2), 55–112.

———, J. Josko Brakus, and Lio Zarantonello (2015), “From Experiential Psychology to Consumer Experience,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25 (January), 166–71.

Schneider, Benjamin and David E. Bowen (1999), “Understand- ing Customer Delight and Outrage,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 41 (1), 35–45.

Shah, Denish, V. Kumar, and Kihyun H. Kim (2014), “Managing Customer Profits: The Power of Habits,” Journal of Marketing, 51 (November), 726–41.

———, ———, Yingge Qu, and Sylia Chen (2012), “Unprofitable Cross-Buying: Evidence from Consumer and Business Mar- kets,” Journal of Marketing, 76 (May), 78–95.

———, Roland T. Rust, A. Parasuraman, Richard Staelin, and George S. Day (2006), “The Path to Customer Centricity,” Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 113–24.

Sheth, Jagdish N. (1973), “A Model of Industrial Buyer Behavior,” Journal of Marketing, 37 (October), 50–56.

——— and Atul Parvatiyar (1995), “Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23 (September), 255–71.

———, Rajendra S. Sisodia, and Arun Sharma (2000), “The An- tecedents and Consequences of Customer-Centric Marketing,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (1), 55–66.

Skiera, Bernd and Nadia Abou Nabout (2013), “Practice Prize Paper-PROSAD: A Bidding Decision Support System for Profit Optimizing Search Engine Advertising,” Marketing Science, 32 (2), 213–20.

Smith, Amy K., Ruth N. Bolton, and Janet Wagner (1999), “A Model of Customer Satisfaction with Service Encounters In- volving Failure and Recovery,” Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (August), 356–72.

Srinivasan, Shuba, Koen Pauwels, and Oliver J. Rutz (2016), “Paths to and off Purchase: Quantifying the Impact of Traditional Marketing and Online Customer Activity,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44 (4), 440–53.

Stuart, Ian F. and Stephen S. Tax (2004), “Toward an Integrative Approach to Designing Service Experiences: Lessons Learned from the Theatre,” Journal of Operations Management, 22 (6), 609–27.

Tax, Stephen S., David McCutcheon, and Ian F. Wilkinson (2013), “The Service Delivery Network (SDN): A Customer-Centric Perspective of the Customer Journey,” Journal of Service Research, 16 (4), 454–70.

Teixeira, Jorge, Lio Patr ́ıcio, Nuno J. Nunes, Leonel Nobrega, Raymond P. Fisk, and Larry Constantine (2012), “Customer Experience Modeling: From Customer Experience to Service Design,” Journal of Service Management, 23 (3), 362–76.

Temkin, Bruce and Jeanne Bliss (2011), “Customer Experience Overview,” research report, Customer Experience Professionals Association.

Thompson, Craig J., William B. Locander, and Howard R. Pollio (1989), “Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential Phenom- enology,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (2), 133–46.

Van Doorn, Jenny, Peter S.H. Leeflang, and Marleen Tijs (2013), “Satisfaction as Predictor of Future Performance: A Replication,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 30 (3), 314–18.

———, Katherine N. Lemon, Vikas Mittal, Stephan Nass, Doree ́n Pick, Peter Pirner, et al. (2010), “Customer Engagement Behavior: Theoretical Foundations and Research Directions,” Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 253–66.

Van Nierop, Johannes E.M., Peter S.H. Leeflang, Marije L. Teerling, and Eelko R.E. Huizingh (2011), “The Impact of the Introduction and Use of an Informational Website on Offline Customer Buying Behavior,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 28 (2), 155–65.

Vargo, Stephen L. and Robert F. Lusch (2004), “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 68 (January), 1–17.

Venkatesan, Rajkumar and V. Kumar (2004), “A Customer Lifetime Value Framework for Customer Selection and Resource Allo- cation Strategy,” Journal of Marketing, 68 (October), 106–25.

———, ———, and Nalini Ravishanker (2007), “Multichannel Shopping: Causes and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing, 71 (April), 114–32.

Venkatraman, Vinod, John A. Clithero, Gavan J. Fitzsimons, and Scott A. Huettel (2012), “New Scanner Data for Brand Mar- keters: How Neuroscience Can Help Better Understand Dif- ferences in Brand Preferences,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22 (1), 143–53.

Verhoef, Peter C. (2003), “Understanding the Effect of Customer Relationship Management Efforts on Customer Retention and Customer Share Development,” Journal of Marketing, 67 (October), 30–45.

——— (2012), Klant centraal in de bankensector. Amsterdam: Monitoring Commissie Code Banken.

———, Gerrit Antonides, and Arnoud N. de Hoog (2004), “Service Encounters as a Sequence of Events the Importance of Peak Experiences,” Journal of Service Research, 7 (1), 53–64.

———, P.K. Kannan and Jeffrey J. Inman (2015), “From Multi- Channel Retailing to Omni-Channel Retailing: Introduction to the Special Issue on Multi-Channel Retailing,” Journal of Re- tailing, 91 (2), 174–81.

———, Edwin Kooge, and Natasha Walk (2016), Creating Value with Big Data Analytics: Making Smarter Marketing Decisions. New York: Routledge.

——— and Katherine N. Lemon (2015), “Advances in Customer Value Management,” in Handbook of Research in Relation- ship Marketing, R.M. Morgan, J.T. Parish and G. Deitz, eds. Northampton, UK: Edward Elgar, 75–103.

———, ———, A. Parasuraman, Anne Roggeveen, Michael Tsiros, and Leonard A. Schlesinger (2009), “Customer Expe- rience Creation: Determinants, Dynamics, and Management Strategies,” Journal of Retailing, 85 (1), 31–41.

———,ScottA.Neslin,andBjo ̈rnVroomen(2007),“Multichannel Customer Management: Understanding the Research-Shopper Phenomenon,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24 (2), 129–48.

———, Werner J. Reinartz, and Manfred Krafft (2010), “Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management,” Journal of Service Research, 13 (3), 247–52.

——— and Jenny van Doorn (2008), “Critical Incidents and the Impact of Satisfaction on Customer Share,” Journal of Marketing, 72 (July), 123–42.

Verleye, Katrien (2015), “The Co-Creation Experience from the Customer Perspective: Its Measurement and Determinants,” Journal of Service Management, 26 (2), 321–42.

Vivek, Shiri D., Sharon E. Beatty, and Robert M. Morgan (2012), “Customer Engagement: Exploring Customer Relationships Beyond Purchase,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20 (Spring), 127–45.

Wang, Rebecca Jen-Hui, Edward C. Malthouse, and Lakshman Krishnamurthi (2015), “On the Go: How Mobile Shopping Affects Customer Purchase Behavior,” Journal of Retailing, 91 (2), 217–34.

Webster, Frederick E. and Yoram Wind (1972), Organizational Buying Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wedel, Michel and P.K. Kannan (2016), “Marketing Analytics for Data-Rich Environments,” Journal of Marketing, 80 (Novem- ber), 97–121.

Westbrook, Robert A. and Richard L. Oliver (1991), “The Dimensionality of Consumption Emotion Patterns and Con- sumer Satisfaction,” Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (1), 84–91.

Wolfinbarger, Mary and Mary C. Gilly (2003), “ETAILQ: Dimen- sionalizing, Measuring, and Predicting E-Tailing Quality,” Journal of Retailing, 79 (3), 183–98.

Wood, Stacy L. (2001), “Remote Purchase Environments: The Influence of Return Policy Leniency on Two-Stage Decision Processes,” Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (May), 157–69.

Xu, Lizhen, Jason A. Duan, and Andrew Whinston (2014), “Path to Purchase: A Mutually Exciting Point Process Model for On- line Advertising and Conversion,” Management Science, 60 (6), 1392–412.

Yim, Chi Kin, David K. Tse and Kimmy Wa Chan (2008), “Strengthening Customer Loyalty Through Intimacy and Pas- sion: Roles of Customer-Firm Affection and Customer Staff Relationships in Services,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (December), 741–56.

Zeithaml, Valarie A. (1988), “Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means–End Model and Synthesis of Evidence,” Journal of Marketing, 52 (July), 2–22.

———, Leonard L. Berry, and A. Parasuraman (1996), “The Be- havioral Consequences of Service Quality,” Journal of Marketing, 60 (April), 31–46.

———, Mary J. Bitner, and Dwayne D. Gremler (2006), Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. New York: McGraw-Hill.

———, Ruth N. Bolton, John Deighton, Timothy L. Keiningham, Katherine N. Lemon, and Andrew J. Petersen (2006), “Forward- Looking Focus: Can Firms Have Adaptive Foresight?” Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 168–83.

Zhu, Zhen, Cheryl Nakata, K. Sivakumar and Dhruv Grewal (2013), “Fix It or Leave It? Customer Recovery from Self-Service Technology Failures,” Journal of Retailing, 89 (1), 15–29.

The big opportunity in Big Data

Strong, C (2016) The big opportunity in Big Data, International Journal of Market Research, 58, 499-501

Mots clés: Big Data, psychologie, marketing 

 

Idée dominante 

 

La donnée « big data » marque une phase importante dans l’histoire de la compréhension de l’être humain.

 

Résumé 

1) La volonté de comprendre l’être humain

L’auteur nous rappelle que chercher à comprendre au plus profond les êtres humains est une préoccupation maintenant vieille de 1000 ans. À la différence que nous avons aujourd’hui développé de nouvelles techniques et outils pour nous aider dans cette activité.

Le plus gros potentiel que nous avons aujourd’hui est la donnée, elle change la façon dans la pratique de la compréhension des autres. En effet, la numérisation de notre monde a pour conséquences que nos vies se font majoritairement en ligne, là où nous laissons des traces sur nos comportements, et ce, dans le temps, dans de multiples contextes, et avec un degré de granularité sans précédents.

      2) La mise en application de la data au sein des entreprises

Concernant les applications de celle-ci au sein de la recherche marketing, elle a transformé le design de l’expérience client et la façon dont le marketing est ciblé. L’entreprise Capgemini a aussi suggéré que la data avait amélioré la performance de 41% en 3 ans.

Cependant, des études récentes ont aussi remis en question le retour sur investissement de cette utilisation de la data pour les marques. Gartner a, dans ce contexte, expliqué que 60% des projets de Big Data échouaient avant de dépasser la phase d’expérimentation et étaient mis à l’arrêt. La raison de cet échec se trouver dans le fait que l’activité ne se fait pas au bon endroit, et reste au plan de comportement et des segments démographiques plutôt que sur les mesures plus tournées vers les attitudes qui proviennent habituellement des études de marché. L’auteur cite Todd Yellen de Netflix disant que ce qui touche à l’aspect géographique, d’age ou de genre n’est pas important.

      3) La data au delà des attitudes

L’auteur exprime son avis sur le fait que le bon endroit pour aller chercher cette data est celui qui mène à la compréhension psychologique du consommateur. Il est de plus en plus évident que la data ne nous dit pas seulement ce qu’il fait mais aussi ce qu’il pense. Il prend l’exemple d’une étude menée par Microsoft et l’université de Cambridge, démontrant à quel point nos vies privées sont révélées. Par exemple, les likes Facebook révélant de larges informations sur les participants à l’étude, de leur personnalité à leur préférence politique (même lorsque cela n’était pas clairement spécifié par un like). Le service de streaming Spotify a aussi montré par une étude que les styles cognitifs étaient un prédicateur important de la préférence musicale.

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

 

Cet article me permet de voir l’importance de la donnée dans l’environnement marketing actuel et les perspectives que cela peut apporter. Il montre aussi qu’il faut aller plus loin dans le choix des données à extraire, et ne pas s’arrêter aux simples actions des consommateurs mais bien d’essayer de cerner leur psychologie et leurs pensées à travers ces actes.

Références bibliographiques

 

Falk, R (1981) The perception of randomness. Proceedings, Fifth International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Grenoble, France.

Wagenaar, W.A. (1972) Generation of random sequences by human subjects: a critical survey of literature. Psychological Bulletin, 77, pp. 65-72.

Past, present and future: music economics at the crossroads

Cameron, S. (2016) Past, present and future: music economics at the crossroads, Journal of Cultural Economics, 40, 1-12

Mots clés: Crowdfunding, environment, file-sharing, band

Idée dominante 

L’auteur met en avant l’impact positif des technologies digitales sur la consommation de musique et met en avant ce qu’apporte la production participative musicale.

Résumé 

 

 Les nouvelles technologies

 

Samuel Cameron parle de précédents essais sur la prédiction du succès dans le secteur musical utilisant la donnée des charts positions (charts de singles et albums du billboard (US principalement) ou de récompenses de disques d’or. L’identification de facteurs individuels dans le succès d’artistes d’une manière adéquate pour des tests économétrique est un problème majeur. L’auteur met en avant le fait que ces essais ayant utilisé le ton ou le tempo n’ont pas été pertinents et qu’il existe un problème de censure dans ces charts. En effet, ces charts représentent la part la plus élevée de la distribution de musique. Il existe donc un manque de comparaison avec des musiques n’ayant pas eu du succès.

 

Celui-ci met aussi en évidence un numéro du magazine Takeover, avec une interview de l’artiste Skrillex qui prétend ne pas se préoccuper que la musique soit accessible gratuitement car il génère d’autres revenus d’autres sources dérivées de sa musique (Cameron, 2016). Une étude menée dans une université américaine montre aussi que le streaming gratuit ne réduit pas les revenus des ventes de CD et que, de plus, il a un impact positif sur la consommation de musique live (Chiang et Assane, 2007).

 

Le secteur événementiel et particulièrement les festivals se sont rapidement développés avec la venue du digital et de l’Internet. Premièrement, Internet permet des coûts moindre pour promouvoir la musique live. Le partage d’enregistrements illégaux de concerts peut alors être un complément plutôt qu’un substitut du concert de l’artiste. Deuxièmement, il existe un facteur économique et plus précisément de revenu (Cameron, 2015). Ceux qui violent les lois sur les droits d’auteurs économisent de l’argent pour le dépenser ensuite vers des expériences en live.

L’augmentation de la demande pour la musique live a été démontré dans des rapports marketing sur la flottabilité du marché des festivals de musique durant les phases de recession majeur (Larsen et Hussels, 2011). Une étude américaine de Mortimer montre parfaitement ce phénomène, avec une symétrie entre l’augmentation du nombre de concerts et la baisse des ventes d’albums de 2000 à 2003 (Mortimer et al, 2012).

La production participative

 

Le crowdfunding (financement participatif) est aussi un des bénéfices que l’on connait grâce à la digitalisation. Ce modèle donne plus de pouvoir de décision aux gens selon ce qu’ils aiment et les musiciens sont enclins à prôner ce modèle de financement « cool » car il les met en contact direct avec leurs fans. Les aspects négatifs ont des implications morales et financières (Micro Mart, 2015). Les arnaques et les fraudes sont un possible problème, si les gens donnant des fonds ne sont pas bien placés pour déterminer si un projet est authentique. Un autre aspect négatif est issu du fait qu’il y a une perte de ressources non négligeable et des efforts non perceptibles si l’on ne parvient pas à atteindre la cible prévue.

 

Après avoir énoncé ces aspects négatifs, l’auteur essaie de montrer les facteurs clés d’une campagne de financement participatif réussie. Il met en avant une étude menée au Brésil, analysant des données de distance entre les participants à la campagne et les artistes (Mendes-da-Silva et al., 2016). Plus la proximité géographique était importante pour il y avait de grosses donations. Ceci montre qu’il y a un degré de localisation dans le financement.

 

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

 

Cet article me permet de voir que le marché musical a, malgré ce qui a été dit, bénéficié du streaming et notamment de la gratuité du contenu. Cette accessibilité a permis une augmentation de l’offre musicale et a permis une augmentation de la fréquentation des concerts et festivals. Ceci me permet de réfléchir sur les stratégies possibles afin de satisfaire cette demande croissante. Il me permet aussi de mettre en avant l’utilisation de la donnée pour prévoir des succès musicaux, ainsi que dans l’aspect du financement participatif, il y a un impact entre la localisation de la cible et les fonds reversés.

 

Références bibliographiques

 

  • Amegashie, J. A. (2009). American Idol: Should it be a singing contest or a popularity contest? Journal of Cultural Economics, 33(4), 265–278.
  • Anon. 2015. The Dangers of Crowdfunding. Micro Mart 1361 pp.22-24 (author name is given as Sarah with second name missing).
  • Baird, P. F. (1996). Ivories. In R. Palmieri (Ed.), Encylopedia of the Piano (p. 183). New York and London: Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. Garland Publishing.
  • Boldrin, M., & Levine, D. K. (2008). Against intellectual monopoly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Burke, A. E. (1994). The Demand for Vinyl L.P.s 1975–1988. Journal of Cultural Economics, 18(1), 41–64.
  • Burke, A. E. (1996). The dynamics of product differentiation in the British record industry. Journal of Cultural Economics, 20(2), 145–164.
  • Cameron, S. (2015). Music in the marketplace: A social economics approach. London: Routledge.
  • Cameron, S., & Collins, A. (1997). Transaction costs and partnerships: The case of rock bands. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organisation, 32(2), 171–183.
  • Cameron, S., & Reynolds, M. (2015). The value of collecting a particular musical artist: the case of MiniDiscs. Briefing Notes in Economics, forthcoming.
  • Chiang, E. P., & Assane, D. (2007). Determinants of music copyright violation on the university campus. Journal of Cultural Economics, 31(3), 187–204.
  • Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4, 386–405.
  • Connolly, M., Dupras, J., & Seguin, C. (2016), An economic perspective on rock concerts and climate change: The decision to compensate emissions using carbon offsets, Journal of Cultural Economics, 40(1), doi:10.1007/s10824-015-9265-2.
  • Connolly, M., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Rockonomics: The economics of popular music. In Throsby D. GinsburghV (Ed.), Handbook of the economics of art and culture (Vol. 1, pp. 667–719). Elsevier: North-Holland.
  • Courty, P., & Pagliero, M. (2014). The pricing of art and the art of pricing: Pricing styles in the concert industry. In V. Ginsburgh & D. Throsby (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of art and culture (Vol. 2, pp. 299–356). Elsevier: North-Holland.
  • Cox, R. A. K., Felton, J. M., & Chung, K. H. (1995). The concentration of commercial success in popular music: An analysis of the distribution of gold records. Journal of Cultural Economics, 19(4), 333–340.
  • Dubini, P., & Provera, B. (2008). Chart success and innovation in the music industry: Does organizational form matter? Journal of Media Business Studies, 5(1), 41–65.
  • Eaton, D. H. (2007). The impact of reputation, timing and source on auction outcomes. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy. 7(1).
  • Elliott, C., & Simmons, R. (2011). Factors determining UK album success. Applied Economics, 43(30), 4699–4706.
  • Georges, P., & Seçkin, A. (2013). Black notes and white noise: A hedonic approach to auction prices of classical music manuscripts. Journal of Cultural Economics, 37(1), 33–60.
  • Giles, D. E. (2006). Superstardom in the U.S. popular music industry. Economics Letters, 92(1), 68–74.
  • Giles, D. E. (2007). Survival of the Hippest: Life at the top of the hot 100. Applied Economics, 39(15), 1877–1887.
  • Gloor, S. (2011). Just How Long Is Your “Fifteen Minutes?” An empirical analysis of artists’ time on the popular charts. Music and Entertainment Industry Educators Association Journal, 11(1), 61–82.
  • Godbolt, J. (2010). A history of jazz in Britain: 1919-1940. London: Northway Productions.
  • Graddy, K., & Margolis, P. E. (2011). Fiddling with value: Violins as an Investment. Economic Inquiry, 49(4), 1083–1097.
  • Halcousis, D., & Matthews, T. (2007). eBay Auctions for Third Eye Blind concert tickets. Journal of Cultural Economics, 31(1), 65–78.
  • Hamlen, W. A, Jr. (1991). Superstardom in popular music: Empirical evidence. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 73(4), 729–733.
  • Hamlen, W. A, Jr. (1994). Variety and superstardom in popular music. Economic Inquiry, 32(3), 395–406.
  • Harding, J. G. (2011). Crowd control. Digital Marketing and Crowd Funding, Sound on Sound, 26(9), 168–172.
  • Hendricks, K., & Sorensen, A. (2009). Information and the skewness of music sales. Journal of Political Economy, 117(2), 324–369.
  • Lange, M. D., & Luksetich, W. A. (1993). The cost of producing symphony orchestra services. Journal of Cultural Economics, 17(2), 1–15.
  • Larsen, G., & Hussels, S. (2011). The significance of commercial music festivals. In S. Cameron (Ed.), Handbook of the economics of leisure. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Liebowitz, S. (2016). How much of the decline in sound recording sales is due to file-Sharing? Journal of Cultural Economics, 40(1), doi:10.1007/s10824-014-9233-2.
  • Mendes-da-Silva, W.,Conte, B.S.,Gattaz, C.C., Francisco, E.R. & Rossoni, L. (2016). The impact of geography on financing music production via crowdfunding in Brazil, Journal of Cultural Economics, 40(1), doi:10.1007/s10824-015-9248-3.
  • Moe, A. G., & Earl, P. E. (2009). Bandwagon and reputation effects in the popular music charts. Queensland: University of Queensland.
  • Mortimer, J., Nosko, C., & Sorenson, A. (2012). Supply responses to digital distribution: recorded music and live performances. Information Economics and Policy, 24, 3–14.
  • Nguyen, G. D., Dejean, S., & Moreau, F. (2014). On the complementarity between online and offline music consumption: the case of free streaming. Journal of Cultural Economics, 38(4), 315–330.
  • Oberholzer-Gee, F., & Strumpf, K. (2007). The effect of file sharing on record sales: An empirical analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 115(1), 1–42.
  • Oberholzer-Gee, F., & Strumpf, K. (2009). File- sharing and copyright. In L. Joshua & S. Scott (Eds.), Innovation policy and the economy, 10 (pp. 19–55). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ordanini, A. (2006). Selection models in the music industry: How a prior independent experience may affect chart success. Journal of Cultural Economics, 30(3), 183–200.
  • Phillips, R., & Strachan, I. C. (2016). Breaking up is hard to do: The resilience of the rock group as an organizational form for creating music. Journal of Cultural Economics, 40(1), doi:10.1007/s10824-014-9226-1.
  • Schulze, G. G., & Anselm, R. (1999). Public orchestra funding in Germany—An empirical investigation. Journal of Cultural Economics, 22(4), 227–247.
  • Strobl, E., & Tucker, C. (2000). The dynamics of chart success in the U.K. pre-recorded popular music industry. Journal of Cultural Economics, 24(2), 113–134.
  • Waldfogel, J. (2014). Digitization, copyright, and the flow of new music products. In V. Ginsburgh & D. Throsby (Eds.), Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture (Vol. 2, pp. 277–298). Elsevier: North-Holland.
  • Wired Magazine. (2015). Skrillex Takeover Issue, May.
  • Zwaan, K., & ter Bogt, T. F. M. (2010). From zero to hero? An exploratory study of the predictors of success in the dutch idols competition. Journal of Popular Music and Society, 33(3), 319–337.