Why recommend a brand face-to-face but not on Facebook? How word-of-mouth on online social sites differs from traditional word-of-mouth

Reference: Eisingerich, A.B., Chun, H.H., Liu, Y., Jia, H., Bell, S.J. (2015).  Why recommend a brand face-to-face but not on Facebook?  How word-of-mouth on online social sites differs from traditional word-of-mouth in Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25(1) 120-128

Main idea: A comparison between traditional word of mouth and electronic word of mouth, and the impact of social media on the use of e-wom.


In this article, what is mainly discussed and highlighted on is a comparison between consumer traditional word-of-mouth, what is commonly referred to as WOM and the electronic word of mouth, what is known as e-wom but mentioned in the article as Swom (word of mouth on social sites). For starters, word of mouth receivers are mainly individuals and small group of people who have ties with the person giving out the information and the communication is done by one-to-one conversations and there is high interaction when exchanging information. However, receivers of Swom information are mainly present on social networks and do not necessarily have personal ties with the person giving out the information and communication is carried out in a one-to-many manner by posting a review on Facebook for example.

With the rise of social media platforms and social networking applications and sites, tendency to use Swom should also increase. However, what was found after conducting three studies was that people preferred not to engage in Swom as much as they engaged in WOM. Many reasons behind people’s preference to use WOM over Swom and one main reason behind people’s preference was the social risk attributed with the giving out of information that was not viewed as positive by the targeted audience. Moreover other reasons behind the preference for the use of WOM over sWOM are the need for self-enhancement and acceptance by others.  Basically, “it is a function of perceived social risk as clearly stated in the article. Thus, perceived social risk “mediates” the effect of communication mode on people’s willingness to provide word-of-mouth in study 1, and “salience” of social risk further magnifies the difference between people’s desire to offer sWOM and WOM in study 3. They also found that self enhancement need mitigates the difference between consumers ‘willingness to provide sWOM and WOM, regardless of whether they inherently possess a high self-enhancement need as in study 2 or when their self-enhancement need is temporarily evoked as in study 3”.

sWOM is more sensitive to self-enhancement motives and to social risk perceptions than WOM because of the high number of people involved. And as a wrap up to what the authors tried to find in their three studies was the difference between people’s desire to engage in sWOM and WOM is mediated by perceived social risk and amplified and increased when social risk is made noticeable. Moreover, they show that the consumers’ need to self-enhance lessen the difference in willingness to offer sWOM versus WOM.

What is suggested after these findings is that marketers find ways to encourage customers to engage more in sWOM without thinking about the negative consequences and threats and social sanctions. This study also only focused on positive word-of-mouth, however it would also be interesting to find out what happens when negative word-of-mouth is communicated on social media platforms and how companies try to regulate such incidents.

Working with connective flow: how smartphone use is evolving in practice

Reference: Dery, K., Kolb, D., & MacCormick, J. (2014). Working with connective flow: how smartphone use is evolving in practice in European Journal of Information Systems, 23(5), 558-570

Main idea: This article highlights on the use of smartphones and their impact on people’s daily lives and lives at work.


Nowadays, the presence of smartphones has impacted individuals in both the work and non-work place, since they have managed to make their way into our daily lives. Working people don’t really find it easy for themselves to detach from the use of these devices and thus don’t know how to enjoy what is really going on around them anymore. The ease of use of these devices as well as their ease of mobility is what contributed to people becoming more and more attached to their screens. It is now difficult to disconnect from work even if the person was not physically present at the office. As mentioned in the article, “workers find themselves faced with the decision of if, when and how much to “switch off” from work to participate in family, community, and, other non-work activities, including sleep, rest and relaxation”.

When it comes to smartphones and work, the article highlights the different behaviors from smartphone users since each person wants things done differently. Some viewed the emergence of smartphone as a contributor to increased productivity outside of the work place, where information can still be passed on at any time and any place. Although it was positively viewed by some, others found their lives being taken over by these devices especially with the emergence of the “blackberry” where individuals started to form a sort of addictive behavior, or what was known as “crackberry”.

What is highlighted in this article is the term “agency” which is a term used to explain individual free-will on when, why and how a person uses the device, so the main research question for this study was “how do smartphone users enact choice (agency) to connect and disconnect in a mobile enabled world” and the study was to be further adopted 5 years later in order to analyze how the responses to these questions changed over time. A small sample case study from within the research division of a global financial services company called URD; Urbis Research Division, was studied over two time periods. One study took place in year 2006 and the other took place in year 2011. And why this choice of the five year gap? The first study was done at a time where implementation of the smartphone into the work place was being introduced, to get an initial picture of how would things evolve, and the second study was done at a time where smartphones have already been integrated in the work place. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the Urbis team, more importantly, employees who have already received their black berry phones at the work place to study the user experience of the smartphone and its impact on the participants jobs and how they manage work and non-work activities.

In 2006, the blackberry phone was largely restricted to email delivery; no internet and search data capacity. Moreover, some people were scared by the idea of being too available and still preferred their PC’s. In addition to that, there was the notion of an increase in organizational demand for higher responsiveness and performance which required a higher level of connectivity within and beyond the workplace. There was an increase in working hours since people now work also afterhours from home and are always available to reach by email, but also the flexibility of out-of-office hours, and the ties with office space led more time to engage in family issues and personal events. In 2011, five years after the blackberry was fully integrated into the work system, we notice the rise of social media, the rise of available data online and mobile application which led to the use of another separate smartphone or mobile phone for personal use different than the one used for work purposes. Moreover, some others started using their personal smartphones for work purposes in order to perform at high levels both personally and professionally. However, there was still high demand from the organization to be available which provoked feelings of resentment and stress from the individual. Ironically for some others, disconnecting sometimes created anxiety and instability in wanting to know what is happening at work even when they’re not actually physically present at the office.

Influential Factors of Online Advertising on Buying Behavior of Tablet Customers

Reference: Derogar, Z., & Askari, R.(2013) Influential Factors of Online Advertising on Buying Behavior of Tablet Customers in Academic Journal of Research in Business & Accounting, 1(4), 25-32

Main idea: The role of internet in the buying decision process of tablet customers.


In this article, the authors try to find a relationship between the buyer behaviors of tablet customers with the type of advertisement found online, and if in the case of a purchase made online, what influenced and pushed the tablet customer in purchasing the product or service. The main goal of advertisements is to persuade people to buy the certain product or service and online advertisements are not that far from also being a persuasion tool for people to consume and engage in online-buying. Online advertisements started to appear as early as companies started to be present online, and it gave them the chance to be present everywhere for more customer interaction and satisfaction. When companies first started to appear on the internet, their main advertising tool to get people’s awareness and attention was by sending emails. Nowadays, however, things have changed, where we can find online ads almost everywhere, whether on internet sites, on game sites, video sites, social media sites, and even online magazines.

This article tries to answer the question: “what is the role of internet in the buying decision process?” This paper will focus on effective factors of online advertising on buying behaviors of tablet customers. It highlights the relationship between ads and positive brand attitude towards the brand which might increase buying potential and create a positive stimulus when faced with this certain ad. Moreover, not only is the ad itself and the content important, but the trust people have towards the message conveyed by the online ad. Perceived information would cause mental engagement with the product and more involvement with the product which will lead the person towards the purchasing intention. Brief descriptions of tablet benefit are stated at the end of this article and a comparison between the three most well-known tablets of today: the iPad, the Samsung tablets, and the Asus. The main benefit of purchasing tablets is their ease of use and size that can be carried around easily as well as their credibility in usage and performance.

Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing

Reference: Chang, Y., Yu, H., Lu, H. (2015). Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 777-782

Main idea: The influence of Social media marketing on consumer’s communicative intention, more specificaly e-WOM (e- word of mouth)


Social media marketing has become one of the most influential marketing methods today. As people increase their time spent on social media and social networks such as Facebook, or twitter, they tend to share information and build relationships and try to gather information and knowledge. It has become a powerful communication tool between companies and their customers to communicate messages faster and more efficiently at a much lower cost. However, it is a challenge for marketers nowadays to try and find ways to persuade their internet users to share information and posts online.

This study “investigates message characteristics and how internet users’ evaluations affect communicative intention”. This study uses different groups to understand their communication purposes.

For starters, what affects internet user behavior is what is known as electronic word of mouth and referred to as eWOM. Sometimes, people actually take into consideration what other people have to say concerning a product or service more than when it is advertised on television or even on internet, and this could be a plus for companies who can try to get people to speak up and share their thoughts on their personal blogs, or social networking sites. What helps in the diffusion of such messages in a timely manner and to a relatively large audience is the existence of these social networking sites, blogs, forums, interactive social media that can contribute in conveying messages and opinions and influence others into doing the same.

A study was carried out to show the possible links between persuasive messages, beliefs and attitudes, relative significance, user expertise and behavioral intention to share or like the post posted. The study was carried around a Taiwanese cooking site “icook” where they studied what actually made people share information, or like it, if they actually did then what made them do it, was it the usefulness of the message, or the persuasive factor they found in the message, or was it simply the post’s popularity.  The main findings carried out after the analysis was the importance of external influential factors and popularity play an important role in influencing people into liking and sharing the information presented. And it was suggested that companies and specifically marketers, must collect statistics on likes, discussions and reviewers from social network pages to be able to better understand where they stand and what to fix in order to get more people to collaborate with the sharing of information.


Factors Influencing Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers

Reference: Babar, A., Rasheed, A., & Sajjad, M. (2014). Factors Influencing Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers in Journal of Basic and Applied scientific research, 4(4), 314-320

Main idea: This article focuses on the TAM (technology acceptance model) which identifies and predicts the factors that motivate or demotivate a consumer in using technological devices.


A new trend that has been the talk of the town for the past few years which has also faced great challenges yet proved to be effective and useful is online shopping, or e-shopping. Data was collected from 132 internet users. And the main variables that were taken into account came from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM has been previously used by researchers for identifying and predicting different factors that motivate or demotivate a customer in using any technology and also helps predict the reception level of any technology.

Four measures are focused in order to get a deeper understanding of how people view online shopping which are, usefulness, ease of use, financial risk, and attitude.

The rise of e-shopping and online shopping nowadays has given retailers and companies an advantage to stay available whenever the customers want and need them to be. One reason for the emergence of such a phenomenon is the innovations in technological devices such as tablets, mobile phones, smartphones, laptops which have all helped in accessing the internet at a more frequent level and serve as a tool for other purposes and not only to access the internet.

The research in this article studies the emerging trends of e-shopping in Pakistan and would be helpful for marketers in order to formulate and choose their digital strategies wisely. The results revolve around the TAM model and the four measures are explained and analyzed.

  • Usefulness, is the convenience of the new technology and it is what the user assesses to form an opinion before actually using it.
  • Ease of use is the “perception that the whole process of making an online purchase is user friendly and does not require special struggles”.
  • Financial risk, is risk on the adoption process of any new technology and whether it is too expensive and requires a lot of money to be used online or not.
  • Finally, attitude towards online shopping is the “liking or disliking a person shares towards e-shopping, and it will determine the future behavior of a consumer in making or not making a final purchase decision”.

What was relevant in the findings of this study is that, usefulness was found to be the noteworthy forecast of attitude towards online shopping. However, ease of use and financial risk did not have strong influence on attitude formation as compared to usefulness and ease of use.



The effects of tree-view based presentation adaptation on mobile web browsing

Reference: Adipat, B., Zhang, D., & Zhou, L. (2011). The effects of tree-view based presentation adaptation on mobile web browsing. MIS Quarterly, 35(1), 99-121

Main idea: The following article focuses on possibilities to enhance the visibility of a website on a handheld mobile device.


With the increase of mobile telephone usage these days, people also tend to browse through the internet sites on these devices. However, the size of mobile handheld devices poses a constraint on the comfort and ease of use of surfing through the web on mobile phones, since they restrict text and information all at once and people would have to either zoom out or try to remember what they last read and link it to what they will start to read. Other negative aspects associated with the mobile handheld device, is the capacity of storage and limited memory. However, positive aspects are also identified and what is now mostly common is the term “ubiquitous”, the ability to be connected anywhere and anytime with the handheld mobile devices.
Most websites have been designed for larger screens such as computers and portable computers and are poorly suited for handheld devices. According to W3C (the World Wide Web consortium) “adaptation is defined as a process of selection, generation, or modification that produces one or more perceivable units in response to a requested uniform source. Presentation adaptation involves a process of re-authoring or rearranging the content layout of a web page in order to achieve more effective content navigation and improve user experience with mobile web.

This research aims to find the answer to these questions: “can presentation adaptation techniques improve user performance and perception? “Will more presentation adaptation features result in better user performance and perception? And “how does the impact of presentation adaptation vary with complexity”? What is suggested to facilitate the web search and web browsing with handheld mobile devices is three techniques that might make it easier to use the web on a handheld mobile device.

First, “tree-view hierarchical display”. To make it clearer, this approach presents the content of a web page in a tree-type, multilevel hierarchy. “Instead of showing the original Web content entirely, it first displays major section titles in a Web page at the highest level of the tree. Users can click a section title of interest, and the tree will either expand to show the next level branches or display the detailed content of the section selected”. This tree view based technique will make it easier for browsers on handheld mobile devices to have a clearer page and read with more ease without the need to go back and forth and scrolling up or down.

Second there’s the notion of “text summarization” where parts of the text are abstracted and readers are provided with the necessary condensed information.

And finally, the third technique to make browsing easier on handheld mobile users, is the technique of “colored keyword highlighting:” is the use of visualization techniques to highlight and point out on the keywords appearing in a certain section which will make it easier to point out the important words and context of the content available.

FICHE : Le luxe et Internet : évolutions d’un paradoxe 

Référence :

Nathalie Veg-Sala, Angy Geerts, (2014) « Le luxe et Internet : évolutions d’un paradoxe », dans Revue Management & Avenir, n°71, Juillet-Août 2014, pp. 111-128.

Idée / dominante :

Le texte montre les bénéfices qu’Internet peut apporter à l’image d’une marque de luxe ainsi que les risques de banalisation encourus.

Résumé :

Lors de l’émergence d’internet en 1994, les marques de luxe était réticentes à son utilisation. Même jusqu’au début des années 2000, Internet était encore largement considéré comme nuisible pour l’image des enseignes de luxe. Cependant, il est aujourd’hui évident que le net possède de réels atouts, du point de vue des managers comme du point de vue des clients. En effet, pour les managers Internet est un canal de communication et de distribution peu coûteux et permettant de toucher une large cible. Pour les consommateurs, Internet est un puits sans fond d’informations auquel ils sont accès 24h/24 sans se déplacer. Malgré quelques limites, comme l’absence de contact humain, Internet est donc un atout pour la communication des marques à leurs consommateurs.

La question de la distribution est plus complexe. La vente en ligne permet aux marques de luxe d’offrir des nouveaux services de personnalisation et de livraison, et d’atteindre des consommateurs éloignés des points de vente physiques ou n’osant pas s’y rendre. Cependant, plusieurs problèmes majeurs se posent. Un canal de distribution aussi vaste qu’Internet augmente le risque de circulation de contrefaçons. De plus, les plateformes en ligne des marques de luxe risquent de cannibaliser leurs points de vente physiques. Par ailleurs, la vente en ligne nécessite l’affichage des prix, qui permet une comparaison directe avec la concurrence. Enfin, l’achat en ligne supprime l’expérience sensorielle et émotionnelle du consommateur et réduit donc les chances d’achat d’impulsion.

D’après l’étude menée sur des managers de luxe, des consommateurs de luxe et des sites de luxe, la situation n’a aujourd’hui évolué que pour certains aspects du problème. Si les managers sont aujourd’hui plus favorables aux sites Internet et à la vente en ligne, la crainte de la perte de cohérence quant à l’identité de la marque est toujours présente et pose la question de la stratégie à adopter pour réussir un passage en ligne. Les consommateurs sont également beaucoup plus enclins aujourd’hui à acheter en ligne, mais gardent une préférence pour l’achat en point de vente et considèrent Internet comme un canal complémentaire. Au niveau des sites en eux-mêmes, la technicité et l’esthétisme se sont nettement améliorés. Les sites internet des marques de luxe permettent aujourd’hui d’instaurer un dialogue entre l’enseigne et le consommateur grâce à des applications interactives, mais seulement 50% des sites proposent l’achat en ligne.

Notes d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours (hypothèses, concepts, modèles, contexte) :

D’après ce texte, les ventes en ligne représentaient en 2014 5% des ventes totales dans le secteur du luxe et les prévisions parlent du double pour 2015. Cependant, Internet reste encore aujourd’hui surtout un outil de communication. La vente en ligne pose en effet des problèmes pour les marques (contrefaçon, chute des achats d’impulsion etc.) et pour les consommateurs (sécurité, manque d’expérience sensorielle etc.).

FICHE : Luxury Retail : Creating Brand Experience 

Référence :

Piyush Sinha, (2011) « Luxury Retail : Creating Brand Experience », dans Vikalpa : The Journal for Decision Makers, Janvier-Mars 2011, vol. 36, issue 1, pp. 85-86.

Idée / dominante :

Le texte montre la difficulté pour une marque de luxe de créer une expérience de vente en ligne.

Résumé :

Les sensations ressenties par les consommateurs lors de l’achat de luxe sont essentielles : c’est l’expérience qui permet de recruter de nouveaux consommateurs ou de fidéliser ceux qui connaissent déjà la marque. Ils viennent sur les points de vente pour entendre une histoire et surtout pour y participer.

L’expérience est beaucoup plus difficile à créer sur internet où les achats sont réalisés pour obtenir des produits et non pour le shopping en lui-même. Les internautes font peu de lèche-vitrine en ligne : si le produit est utile et convient, il est acheté en un clic et l’internaute passe à une autre page sans s’intéresser à l’identité de la marque.

Il y a donc une incohérence entre le luxe et Internet : un produit de luxe n’a d’autre utilité que l’interaction que le consommateur entretient avec lui et avec la marque en passant du temps dans un point de vente et lors de la transaction physique. En ligne, l’internaute ne peut pas toucher le produit et est moins imprégné dans l’univers de la marque. Un réel point d’amélioration possible à ce sujet est la sophistication et la personnalisation de la livraison après l’achat.

Internet a donc plus une utilité au niveau de la distribution que de la communication et de la transmission : en effet, les e-shops permettent de recruter des consommateurs ne souhaitant pas acheter en public et évite l’enjeu de la position géographique stratégique des boutiques (parfois peu adaptées à leur ville ou à leur quartier).

Notes d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours (hypothèses, concepts, modèles, contexte) :

Pour les marques de luxe, la communication est encore plus importante que la distribution : dans les points de vente, c’est la création d’une expérience ancrée dans l’univers de la marque qui permet la vente et la fidélisation. Sans contact physique, l’expérience est moindre : Internet est donc plus un outil de prospection aidant à élargir la cible de la marque.

FICHE : The art of selling the dream online

Référence :

Uché Okonkwo, (2010) « The art of selling the dream online », dans Luxury online : styles, systems, strategies, éditions Palgrave MacMillan, 2010, partie 1, chapitre 3, pp. 50-61.

Idée / dominante :

Ce chapitre décrit l’enjeu du web 2.0, ou web social, pour les marques de luxe.

Résumé :

Le web 2.0, caractérisé par l’émergence des réseaux sociaux tels que Facebook, Youtube ou Tweeter, est centré autour de la personne : étant dans la nature humaine d’aimer être le centre de l’attention et de se montrer curieux de la vie des autres, il est logique que le nombre de membres de ces réseaux soit en constante hausse, augmentant considérablement leur potentiel publicitaire.

Ces nouveaux réseaux présentent d’énormes opportunités pour les marques de luxe, mais aussi des risques dus à leurs caractéristiques très particulières. En effet, ce sont des forums et des blogs transparents et indépendants, où les modérateurs donnent leur avis à la vue de tous et sans être directement gérés ou influencés par la marque. Les textes postés sont informels et donc souvent très éloignés de la syntaxe raffinée des marques de luxe qui ne peuvent contrôler ces plateformes accessibles à tous et gérés par des passionnés n’hésitant pas à critiquer. L’attente des internautes lors de la connexion à de tels réseaux est justement l’objectivité des modérateurs permettant d’échapper au contrôle du marketing, et la possibilité d’interagir dans la confiance avec d’autres internautes rassemblés autour d’un thème. Comme son nom l’indique, le web social est une communauté qui rassemble des consommateurs sans rencontre réelle. Il est également nécessaire de souligner que les réseaux sociaux apportent un sentiment de pouvoir aux consommateurs, d’autant accru par l’inter-connectivité des réseaux entre eux apportant un potentiel viral aux commentaires postés.

Les réseaux sociaux permettent aux marques d’affirmer leur identité mais aussi d’augmenter leur notoriété et d’inspirer confiance aux internautes, plus facilement séduits que par les médias classiques considérés comme corrompus. Ils permettent d’identifier les attentes, de repérer les tendances et d’apprendre des faiblesses des concurrents mises en valeur. Suivre les réseaux sociaux permet également aux marques de luxe de repérer les modérateurs influents à qui il est crucial de servir les bonnes informations. Enfin, ces réseaux nourrissent les marques d’informations et d’opinions, qui permettent l’amélioration de la relation avec les clients, une meilleure compréhension de l’évolution de leur psychologie, et même la création de nouveaux concepts grâce à la collaboration avec les internautes.

Certaines difficultés sont tout de même à noter. D’abord l’enjeu du contrôle des contenus posté par des modérateurs indépendants de la marque et pouvant manquer d’intégrité ou de véracité. Il est également essentiel pour les marques de luxe d’instaurer une cohérence entre leur plan marketing et leur programme e-marketing, qui doivent délivrer le même message. De plus, les enseignes de luxe font face au risque de fuites d’informations vers la concurrence, facilitées par le web social. Enfin, les réseaux sociaux posent des enjeux éthiques et légaux, les internautes étant de plus en plus conscients d’être victimes d’addiction et d’atteinte à la vie privée (publicités sur le bord de la page ciblant les centres d’intérêt de l’internaute, déterminés grâce au contenu de ses discussions).

Notes d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours (hypothèses, concepts, modèles, contexte) :

Plus qu’une mine d’informations utiles, le web 2.0 présente pour les marques de luxe l’opportunité de créer un lien ouvert et informel avec ses consommateurs. Centré sur la personne, il éloigne la figure du « corporate giant » et encourage la proximité qui favorise l’achat. Cependant, il pose également des enjeux de modération de certains contenus pouvant porter préjudice aux enseignes de luxe.


FICHE : The potential of social media for luxury brand management

Référence :

Seung-A Annie Jin, (2011) «The potential of social media for luxury brand management », dans Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol.30, n°7, pp. 687-699.

Idée / dominante :

Le texte explique les enjeux des réseaux sociaux et des « UGC » (« User-Generated Contents ») en général pour les marques de luxe.

Résumé :

Les marques de luxe n’ont plus l’exclusivité quand il s’agit de la communication autour de leurs produits : elles doivent faire face aux « user-generated contents », les avis et opinions que les consommateurs postent sur les réseaux sociaux et qui ont une réelle incidence sur les décisions d’achat des lecteurs de ces e-critiques. Les réseaux sociaux fonctionnent comme des communautés au sein desquelles les consommateurs font la promotion de leurs articles préférés et peuvent ainsi devenir des prescripteurs d’achat très avantageux pour les marques. En revanche, ces mêmes réseaux sociaux (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube etc.) peuvent devenir les supports d’«anti-communautés » de consommateurs mécontents et affichant des avis négatifs.
Les membres de ces communautés en ligne utilisent les avis des autres membres pour évaluer la qualité d’un produit avant de se rendre au point de vente pour l’acheter : c’est le phénomène du « ROPO » (« Research Online and Purchase Offline »). Ce phénomène est plus grand lorsque l’intention d’achat est hédoniste que lorsqu’elle est utilitaire : il est donc très développé chez les consommateurs de luxe qui recherchent avant tout l’expérience et non l’utilité.
Les réseaux sociaux son plus utilisés comme des outils de consultation que d’achat. Il est donc essentiel pour les marques de luxe d’être présentes sur ces plateformes (véritables vitrines dématérialisées) et d’y tenir des pages de qualité pour augmenter leurs ventes en boutique par la suite : l’intention d’achat d’un internaute est en effet confortée après son passage sur la page Facebook d’une marque de luxe si cette dernière était qualitative.

Notes d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours (hypothèses, concepts, modèles, contexte) :

Il est incontournable pour les marques de luxe d’être présentes sur les réseaux sociaux et de tirer partie du phénomène du ROPO. Cependant, ces plateformes augmentent le pouvoir décisionnel et prescripteur des consommateurs et peuvent donc avoir un effet négatif.