Working with connective flow: how smartphone use is evolving in practice

Reference: Dery, K., Kolb, D., & MacCormick, J. (2014). Working with connective flow: how smartphone use is evolving in practice in European Journal of Information Systems, 23(5), 558-570

Main idea: This article highlights on the use of smartphones and their impact on people’s daily lives and lives at work.


Nowadays, the presence of smartphones has impacted individuals in both the work and non-work place, since they have managed to make their way into our daily lives. Working people don’t really find it easy for themselves to detach from the use of these devices and thus don’t know how to enjoy what is really going on around them anymore. The ease of use of these devices as well as their ease of mobility is what contributed to people becoming more and more attached to their screens. It is now difficult to disconnect from work even if the person was not physically present at the office. As mentioned in the article, “workers find themselves faced with the decision of if, when and how much to “switch off” from work to participate in family, community, and, other non-work activities, including sleep, rest and relaxation”.

When it comes to smartphones and work, the article highlights the different behaviors from smartphone users since each person wants things done differently. Some viewed the emergence of smartphone as a contributor to increased productivity outside of the work place, where information can still be passed on at any time and any place. Although it was positively viewed by some, others found their lives being taken over by these devices especially with the emergence of the “blackberry” where individuals started to form a sort of addictive behavior, or what was known as “crackberry”.

What is highlighted in this article is the term “agency” which is a term used to explain individual free-will on when, why and how a person uses the device, so the main research question for this study was “how do smartphone users enact choice (agency) to connect and disconnect in a mobile enabled world” and the study was to be further adopted 5 years later in order to analyze how the responses to these questions changed over time. A small sample case study from within the research division of a global financial services company called URD; Urbis Research Division, was studied over two time periods. One study took place in year 2006 and the other took place in year 2011. And why this choice of the five year gap? The first study was done at a time where implementation of the smartphone into the work place was being introduced, to get an initial picture of how would things evolve, and the second study was done at a time where smartphones have already been integrated in the work place. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the Urbis team, more importantly, employees who have already received their black berry phones at the work place to study the user experience of the smartphone and its impact on the participants jobs and how they manage work and non-work activities.

In 2006, the blackberry phone was largely restricted to email delivery; no internet and search data capacity. Moreover, some people were scared by the idea of being too available and still preferred their PC’s. In addition to that, there was the notion of an increase in organizational demand for higher responsiveness and performance which required a higher level of connectivity within and beyond the workplace. There was an increase in working hours since people now work also afterhours from home and are always available to reach by email, but also the flexibility of out-of-office hours, and the ties with office space led more time to engage in family issues and personal events. In 2011, five years after the blackberry was fully integrated into the work system, we notice the rise of social media, the rise of available data online and mobile application which led to the use of another separate smartphone or mobile phone for personal use different than the one used for work purposes. Moreover, some others started using their personal smartphones for work purposes in order to perform at high levels both personally and professionally. However, there was still high demand from the organization to be available which provoked feelings of resentment and stress from the individual. Ironically for some others, disconnecting sometimes created anxiety and instability in wanting to know what is happening at work even when they’re not actually physically present at the office.

Influential Factors of Online Advertising on Buying Behavior of Tablet Customers

Reference: Derogar, Z., & Askari, R.(2013) Influential Factors of Online Advertising on Buying Behavior of Tablet Customers in Academic Journal of Research in Business & Accounting, 1(4), 25-32

Main idea: The role of internet in the buying decision process of tablet customers.


In this article, the authors try to find a relationship between the buyer behaviors of tablet customers with the type of advertisement found online, and if in the case of a purchase made online, what influenced and pushed the tablet customer in purchasing the product or service. The main goal of advertisements is to persuade people to buy the certain product or service and online advertisements are not that far from also being a persuasion tool for people to consume and engage in online-buying. Online advertisements started to appear as early as companies started to be present online, and it gave them the chance to be present everywhere for more customer interaction and satisfaction. When companies first started to appear on the internet, their main advertising tool to get people’s awareness and attention was by sending emails. Nowadays, however, things have changed, where we can find online ads almost everywhere, whether on internet sites, on game sites, video sites, social media sites, and even online magazines.

This article tries to answer the question: “what is the role of internet in the buying decision process?” This paper will focus on effective factors of online advertising on buying behaviors of tablet customers. It highlights the relationship between ads and positive brand attitude towards the brand which might increase buying potential and create a positive stimulus when faced with this certain ad. Moreover, not only is the ad itself and the content important, but the trust people have towards the message conveyed by the online ad. Perceived information would cause mental engagement with the product and more involvement with the product which will lead the person towards the purchasing intention. Brief descriptions of tablet benefit are stated at the end of this article and a comparison between the three most well-known tablets of today: the iPad, the Samsung tablets, and the Asus. The main benefit of purchasing tablets is their ease of use and size that can be carried around easily as well as their credibility in usage and performance.

Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing

Reference: Chang, Y., Yu, H., Lu, H. (2015). Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 777-782

Main idea: The influence of Social media marketing on consumer’s communicative intention, more specificaly e-WOM (e- word of mouth)


Social media marketing has become one of the most influential marketing methods today. As people increase their time spent on social media and social networks such as Facebook, or twitter, they tend to share information and build relationships and try to gather information and knowledge. It has become a powerful communication tool between companies and their customers to communicate messages faster and more efficiently at a much lower cost. However, it is a challenge for marketers nowadays to try and find ways to persuade their internet users to share information and posts online.

This study “investigates message characteristics and how internet users’ evaluations affect communicative intention”. This study uses different groups to understand their communication purposes.

For starters, what affects internet user behavior is what is known as electronic word of mouth and referred to as eWOM. Sometimes, people actually take into consideration what other people have to say concerning a product or service more than when it is advertised on television or even on internet, and this could be a plus for companies who can try to get people to speak up and share their thoughts on their personal blogs, or social networking sites. What helps in the diffusion of such messages in a timely manner and to a relatively large audience is the existence of these social networking sites, blogs, forums, interactive social media that can contribute in conveying messages and opinions and influence others into doing the same.

A study was carried out to show the possible links between persuasive messages, beliefs and attitudes, relative significance, user expertise and behavioral intention to share or like the post posted. The study was carried around a Taiwanese cooking site “icook” where they studied what actually made people share information, or like it, if they actually did then what made them do it, was it the usefulness of the message, or the persuasive factor they found in the message, or was it simply the post’s popularity.  The main findings carried out after the analysis was the importance of external influential factors and popularity play an important role in influencing people into liking and sharing the information presented. And it was suggested that companies and specifically marketers, must collect statistics on likes, discussions and reviewers from social network pages to be able to better understand where they stand and what to fix in order to get more people to collaborate with the sharing of information.


Factors Influencing Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers

Reference: Babar, A., Rasheed, A., & Sajjad, M. (2014). Factors Influencing Online Shopping Behavior of Consumers in Journal of Basic and Applied scientific research, 4(4), 314-320

Main idea: This article focuses on the TAM (technology acceptance model) which identifies and predicts the factors that motivate or demotivate a consumer in using technological devices.


A new trend that has been the talk of the town for the past few years which has also faced great challenges yet proved to be effective and useful is online shopping, or e-shopping. Data was collected from 132 internet users. And the main variables that were taken into account came from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM has been previously used by researchers for identifying and predicting different factors that motivate or demotivate a customer in using any technology and also helps predict the reception level of any technology.

Four measures are focused in order to get a deeper understanding of how people view online shopping which are, usefulness, ease of use, financial risk, and attitude.

The rise of e-shopping and online shopping nowadays has given retailers and companies an advantage to stay available whenever the customers want and need them to be. One reason for the emergence of such a phenomenon is the innovations in technological devices such as tablets, mobile phones, smartphones, laptops which have all helped in accessing the internet at a more frequent level and serve as a tool for other purposes and not only to access the internet.

The research in this article studies the emerging trends of e-shopping in Pakistan and would be helpful for marketers in order to formulate and choose their digital strategies wisely. The results revolve around the TAM model and the four measures are explained and analyzed.

  • Usefulness, is the convenience of the new technology and it is what the user assesses to form an opinion before actually using it.
  • Ease of use is the “perception that the whole process of making an online purchase is user friendly and does not require special struggles”.
  • Financial risk, is risk on the adoption process of any new technology and whether it is too expensive and requires a lot of money to be used online or not.
  • Finally, attitude towards online shopping is the “liking or disliking a person shares towards e-shopping, and it will determine the future behavior of a consumer in making or not making a final purchase decision”.

What was relevant in the findings of this study is that, usefulness was found to be the noteworthy forecast of attitude towards online shopping. However, ease of use and financial risk did not have strong influence on attitude formation as compared to usefulness and ease of use.



The effects of tree-view based presentation adaptation on mobile web browsing

Reference: Adipat, B., Zhang, D., & Zhou, L. (2011). The effects of tree-view based presentation adaptation on mobile web browsing. MIS Quarterly, 35(1), 99-121

Main idea: The following article focuses on possibilities to enhance the visibility of a website on a handheld mobile device.


With the increase of mobile telephone usage these days, people also tend to browse through the internet sites on these devices. However, the size of mobile handheld devices poses a constraint on the comfort and ease of use of surfing through the web on mobile phones, since they restrict text and information all at once and people would have to either zoom out or try to remember what they last read and link it to what they will start to read. Other negative aspects associated with the mobile handheld device, is the capacity of storage and limited memory. However, positive aspects are also identified and what is now mostly common is the term “ubiquitous”, the ability to be connected anywhere and anytime with the handheld mobile devices.
Most websites have been designed for larger screens such as computers and portable computers and are poorly suited for handheld devices. According to W3C (the World Wide Web consortium) “adaptation is defined as a process of selection, generation, or modification that produces one or more perceivable units in response to a requested uniform source. Presentation adaptation involves a process of re-authoring or rearranging the content layout of a web page in order to achieve more effective content navigation and improve user experience with mobile web.

This research aims to find the answer to these questions: “can presentation adaptation techniques improve user performance and perception? “Will more presentation adaptation features result in better user performance and perception? And “how does the impact of presentation adaptation vary with complexity”? What is suggested to facilitate the web search and web browsing with handheld mobile devices is three techniques that might make it easier to use the web on a handheld mobile device.

First, “tree-view hierarchical display”. To make it clearer, this approach presents the content of a web page in a tree-type, multilevel hierarchy. “Instead of showing the original Web content entirely, it first displays major section titles in a Web page at the highest level of the tree. Users can click a section title of interest, and the tree will either expand to show the next level branches or display the detailed content of the section selected”. This tree view based technique will make it easier for browsers on handheld mobile devices to have a clearer page and read with more ease without the need to go back and forth and scrolling up or down.

Second there’s the notion of “text summarization” where parts of the text are abstracted and readers are provided with the necessary condensed information.

And finally, the third technique to make browsing easier on handheld mobile users, is the technique of “colored keyword highlighting:” is the use of visualization techniques to highlight and point out on the keywords appearing in a certain section which will make it easier to point out the important words and context of the content available.