Lemon, K et Verhoef, P (2016) Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey, Journal of Marketing, 80, 69-96
Mots clés: Customer experience, customer journey, marketing strategy, customer experience management, touch points
L’auteur essaie d’expliquer l’expérience client en donnant les clés de compréhension de définitions antérieures et des éléments de contribution de cette expérience client.
L’expérience client a changé totalement et s’est complexifiée car nous rentrons en contact avec les marques par de nombreux moyens aujourd’hui. La customer journey est elle aussi plus complexe. (Lemon, K et Verhoef, P, 2016).
Il cite Pine et Gilmore, qui pensent que les « expériences » ont différentes des produits et services, quand un consommateur recherche de l’expérience c’est pour « passer du temps à apprécier une série de moments mémorables qu’une compagnie met en scène pour l’engager de manière personnelle” (Pine et Gilmore, 1998).
De récentes recherches définissent l’expérience client englobant tous les aspects de l’offre : la qualité du service consommateur, mais aussi de la publicité, le packaging, les caractéristiques du produit ou service, de la facilité d’emploi et de la fiabilité (Meyer et Schwager, 2007).
Différentes contributions importent l’expérience client, trois sont à retenir (Philip Kotler, 1967 ; John Howard et Jagdish Sheth, 1969) :
-> Satisfaction and loyalty : un facteur clé pour comprendre et gérer l’expérience client est l’habilité à mesurer et surveiller les réactions des clients à l’offre, spécialement les attitudes et perceptions. Des études ont fortement évalué et confirmé les effets de la satisfaction sur le comportement client et sur la performance de l’entreprise. Focused on process outcomes (e.g., Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl 2004; Bolton and Drew 1991; Gupta and Zeithaml 2006).
-> Customer relationship management : CRM se concentre sur l’optimisation de la profitabilité des clients et sur la valeur vie client. Research focused on process, behaviour and resulting value (e.g., Kumar and Reinartz 2006; Reinartz, Krafft, and Hoyer 2004).
-> Customer centricity and customer focus : stratégie d’alignement des produits et services d’une entreprise par rapport aux besoins de ses clients ayant le plus de valeur pour elle, pour maximiser la valeur financière de ces clients sur le long terme. Deux outils majeurs aident : les personas et la perspective ‘job-to-be-done ». Focused on internal organizational aspects of customer experience (Fader, 2012).
Une recherche antérieure a démontré les résultats de l’expérience client qui sont la satisfaction client, la fidélité, le bouche à oreille, la profitabilité de client et la CLV (e.g., Bolton 1998 ; Bolton, Lemon, and Verhoef, 2004 ; Verhoef, 2003). Concernant la satisfaction peut être l’un des composants de l’expérience client, en se basant sur les evaluations cognitives du client sur son experience.
L’expérience client peut s’établir en 3 phases : préachat, achat, postachat.
Un moyen d’étude de l’expérience client est la comprehension du parcours client, en cartographiant et en analysant ce parcours, en comprenant les points de contacts tout au long du parcours qui permettent de facilité le dessin de l’expérience, ainsi que comment le mobile influence cette expérience.
Il faut aussi comprendre les options et choix qui s’offrent au client à chaque point de contact.
Service blueprinting : service se basant sur une approche focalisé sur le client pour l’innovation et l’amélioration du service. Le service blueprinting fournit un bon départ pour établir la cartographie du parcours client. L’analyse du parcours client doit comprendre et cartographier le parcours du point de vue du consommateur (Bitner et al., 2008).
Multichannel perspective : Cette méthode prend en considération le comportement quant au choix de la chaîne et offre les clés d’analyse, de gestion et d’influence du parcours client. il inclue des paramètres socio-psychographiques, les avantages et couts perçus, les influences sociales et les instruments du marketing mix, et les comportement des achats passés : utilisation des sondages pour cette analyse (e.g., Ansari, Mela, and Neslin 2008; Bilgicer et al. 2015; Melis et al. 2015).
Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours
Cet article me donne les clés de compréhension de l’expérience client, de ses conséquences, telles que la satisfaction et me permet de savoir par quelles méthodes l’analyser.
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