Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey

Lemon, K et Verhoef, P (2016) Understanding Customer Experience Throughout the Customer Journey, Journal of Marketing, 80, 69-96

Mots clés: Customer experience, customer journey, marketing strategy, customer experience management, touch points  

Idée dominante 

L’auteur essaie d’expliquer l’expérience client en donnant les clés de compréhension de définitions antérieures et des éléments de contribution de cette expérience client.

Résumé 

L’expérience client a changé totalement et s’est complexifiée car nous rentrons en contact avec les marques par de nombreux moyens aujourd’hui. La customer journey est elle aussi plus complexe. (Lemon, K et Verhoef, P, 2016).

Il cite Pine et Gilmore, qui pensent que les « expériences » ont différentes des produits et services, quand un consommateur recherche de l’expérience c’est pour « passer du temps à apprécier une série de moments mémorables qu’une compagnie met en scène pour l’engager de manière personnelle” (Pine et Gilmore, 1998).

De récentes recherches définissent l’expérience client englobant tous les aspects de l’offre : la qualité du service consommateur, mais aussi de la publicité, le packaging, les caractéristiques du produit ou service, de la facilité d’emploi et de la fiabilité (Meyer et Schwager, 2007).

Différentes contributions importent l’expérience client, trois sont à retenir (Philip Kotler, 1967 ; John Howard et Jagdish Sheth, 1969) :

-> Satisfaction and loyalty : un facteur clé pour comprendre et gérer l’expérience client est l’habilité à mesurer et surveiller les réactions des clients à l’offre, spécialement les attitudes et perceptions. Des études ont fortement évalué et confirmé les effets de la satisfaction sur le comportement client et sur la performance de l’entreprise. Focused on process outcomes (e.g., Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl 2004; Bolton and Drew 1991; Gupta and Zeithaml 2006).

-> Customer relationship management : CRM se concentre sur l’optimisation de la profitabilité des clients et sur la valeur vie client. Research focused on process, behaviour and resulting value (e.g., Kumar and Reinartz 2006; Reinartz, Krafft, and Hoyer 2004).

-> Customer centricity and customer focus : stratégie d’alignement des produits et services d’une entreprise par rapport aux besoins de ses clients ayant le plus de valeur pour elle, pour maximiser la valeur financière de ces clients sur le long terme. Deux outils majeurs aident : les personas et la perspective ‘job-to-be-done ». Focused on internal organizational aspects of customer experience (Fader, 2012).

Une recherche antérieure a démontré les résultats de l’expérience client qui sont la satisfaction client, la fidélité, le bouche à oreille, la profitabilité de client et la CLV (e.g., Bolton 1998 ; Bolton, Lemon, and Verhoef, 2004 ; Verhoef, 2003). Concernant la satisfaction peut être l’un des composants de l’expérience client, en se basant sur les evaluations cognitives du client sur son experience.

L’expérience client peut s’établir en 3 phases : préachat, achat, postachat.

Un moyen d’étude de l’expérience client est la comprehension du parcours client, en cartographiant et en analysant ce parcours, en comprenant les points de contacts tout au long du parcours qui permettent de facilité le dessin de l’expérience, ainsi que comment le mobile influence cette expérience.

Il faut aussi comprendre les options et choix qui s’offrent au client à chaque point de contact.

Service blueprinting : service se basant sur une approche focalisé sur le client pour l’innovation et l’amélioration du service. Le service blueprinting fournit un bon départ pour établir la cartographie du parcours client. L’analyse du parcours client doit comprendre et cartographier le parcours du point de vue du consommateur (Bitner et al., 2008).

Multichannel perspective : Cette méthode prend en considération le comportement quant au choix de la chaîne et offre les clés d’analyse, de gestion et d’influence du parcours client. il inclue des paramètres socio-psychographiques, les avantages et couts perçus, les influences sociales et les instruments du marketing mix, et les comportement des achats passés : utilisation des sondages pour cette analyse (e.g., Ansari, Mela, and Neslin 2008; Bilgicer et al. 2015; Melis et al. 2015).

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

Cet article me donne les clés de compréhension de l’expérience client, de ses conséquences, telles que la satisfaction et me permet de savoir par quelles méthodes l’analyser.

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The big opportunity in Big Data

Strong, C (2016) The big opportunity in Big Data, International Journal of Market Research, 58, 499-501

Mots clés: Big Data, psychologie, marketing 

 

Idée dominante 

 

La donnée « big data » marque une phase importante dans l’histoire de la compréhension de l’être humain.

 

Résumé 

1) La volonté de comprendre l’être humain

L’auteur nous rappelle que chercher à comprendre les êtres humains en profondeur a aujourd’hui 1000 ans. Mais aujourd’hui nous avons de nouveaux outils pour établir des méthodes de compréhension. Et notamment grace aux données. Nous passons la plupart de notre temps en ligne ou nous laissons des données sur nos habitudes, attitudes de façon constante.

      2) La mise en application de la data au sein des entreprises

La donnée chamboule le marketing et l’expérience client. Capgemini en est un exemple pour laquelle la performance a augmenter de presque 50% en quelques années.

La mauvaise utilisation de la data reste un enjeu majeur car plus de la moitié des projets échouent dès le début. Il faut chercher la donnée au bon endroit qui permet de comprendre l’aspect psychologique au delà du comportement.

      3) La data au delà des attitudes

Il est de plus en plus évident que la data ne nous dit pas seulement ce qu’il fait mais aussi ce qu’il pense. Il prend l’exemple d’une étude menée par Microsoft et l’université de Cambridge, démontrant à quel point nos vies privées sont révélées, comme les Likes Facebook.

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

Cet article me permet de voir l’importance de la donnée dans l’environnement marketing actuel et les perspectives que cela peut apporter. Il montre aussi qu’il faut aller plus loin dans le choix des données à extraire, et ne pas s’arrêter aux simples actions des consommateurs mais bien d’essayer de cerner leur psychologie et leurs pensées à travers ces actes.

Références bibliographiques

 

Falk, R (1981) The perception of randomness. Proceedings, Fifth International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Grenoble, France.

Wagenaar, W.A. (1972) Generation of random sequences by human subjects: a critical survey of literature. Psychological Bulletin, 77, pp. 65-72.

Past, present and future: music economics at the crossroads

Cameron, S. (2016) Past, present and future: music economics at the crossroads, Journal of Cultural Economics, 40, 1-12

Mots clés: Crowdfunding, environment, file-sharing, band

Idée dominante 

L’auteur met en avant l’impact positif des technologies digitales sur la consommation de musique et met en avant ce qu’apporte la production participative musicale.

Résumé 

 

 Les nouvelles technologies

 

Samuel Cameron parle de précédents essais sur la prédiction du succès dans le secteur musical utilisant la donnée des charts positions (charts de singles et albums du billboard (US principalement) ou de récompenses de disques d’or. L’identification de facteurs individuels dans le succès d’artistes d’une manière adéquate pour des tests économétrique est un problème majeur. L’auteur met en avant le fait que ces essais ayant utilisé le ton ou le tempo n’ont pas été pertinents et qu’il existe un problème de censure dans ces charts. En effet, ces charts représentent la part la plus élevée de la distribution de musique. Il existe donc un manque de comparaison avec des musiques n’ayant pas eu du succès.

 

Il cite des artistes qui ne se préoccupent pas de la gratuité actuelle de la musique car ils ont d’autres revenus (Cameron, 2016). Une étude menée dans une université américaine montre aussi que le streaming gratuit ne réduit pas les revenus des ventes de CD et que, de plus, il a un impact positif sur la consommation de musique live (Chiang et Assane, 2007).

 

Le secteur événementiel et particulièrement les festivals se sont rapidement développés avec la venue du digital et de l’Internet (promotion moins cher notamment). Deuxièmement, il existe un facteur économique et plus précisément de revenu (Cameron, 2015). Les consommateurs de musique de manière illégal économisent pour aller voir les artistes en concert.

L’augmentation de la demande pour la musique live a été démontré dans des rapports marketing sur la flottabilité du marché des festivals de musique durant les phases de recession majeur (Larsen et Hussels, 2011). Une étude américaine de Mortimer montre parfaitement ce phénomène, avec une symétrie entre l’augmentation du nombre de concerts et la baisse des ventes d’albums de 2000 à 2003 (Mortimer et al, 2012).

La production participative

 

Le crowdfunding (financement participatif) est aussi un des bénéfices que l’on connait grâce à la digitalisation. Ce modèle donne plus de pouvoir de décision aux gens selon ce qu’ils aiment et les musiciens sont enclins à prôner ce modèle de financement « cool » car il les met en contact direct avec leurs fans. Les aspects négatifs ont des implications morales et financières (Micro Mart, 2015). Les arnaques et les fraudes sont un possible problème, si les gens donnant des fonds ne sont pas bien placés pour déterminer si un projet est authentique. Un autre aspect négatif est issu du fait qu’il y a une perte de ressources non négligeable et des efforts non perceptibles si l’on ne parvient pas à atteindre la cible prévue.

 

Après avoir énoncé ces aspects négatifs, l’auteur essaie de montrer les facteurs clés d’une campagne de financement participatif réussie. Il met en avant une étude menée au Brésil, analysant des données de distance entre les participants à la campagne et les artistes (Mendes-da-Silva et al., 2016). Plus la proximité géographique était importante pour il y avait de grosses donations. Ceci montre qu’il y a un degré de localisation dans le financement.

 

Note d’intérêt pour la recherche en cours 

 

Cet article me permet de voir que le marché musical a, malgré ce qui a été dit, bénéficié du streaming et notamment de la gratuité du contenu. Cette accessibilité a permis une augmentation de l’offre musicale et a permis une augmentation de la fréquentation des concerts et festivals. Ceci me permet de réfléchir sur les stratégies possibles afin de satisfaire cette demande croissante. Il me permet aussi de mettre en avant l’utilisation de la donnée pour prévoir des succès musicaux, ainsi que dans l’aspect du financement participatif, il y a un impact entre la localisation de la cible et les fonds reversés.

 

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