Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Bitner, M. J.

Résumé :

A typology of service organizations is presented and a conceptual framework is advanced for exploring the impact of physical surroundings on the behaviors of both customers and employees. The ability of the physical surroundings to facilitate achievement of organizational as well as marketing goals is explored. Literature from diverse disciplines provides theoretical grounding for the framework, which serves as a base for focused propositions. By examining the multiple strategic roles that physical surroundings can exert in service organizations, the author highlights key managerial and research implications.

  • Une typologie des organisations de services est présentée et un cadre conceptuel est mis au point pour explorer l’impact des environnements physiques sur les comportements des clients et des employés. La capacité de l’environnement physique à faciliter la réalisation d’objectifs organisationnels et marketing est explorée. Une littérature de diverses disciplines fournit une base théorique au cadre, qui sert de base à des propositions ciblées. En examinant les multiples rôles stratégiques que l’environnement physique peut jouer dans les organisations de services, l’auteur met en évidence les principales implications en termes de gestion et de recherche.

Mots clefs :

Marketing, Servicescape, behaviour, physical surrounding, organization, interactions

Développement :

The effect of atmospherics, or physical design and decor elements, on consumers and workers is recognized by managers and mentioned in virtually all marketing, retailing, and organizational behavior texts.

Managers continually plan, build, change, and control an organization’s physical surroundings, but frequently the impact of a specific design or design change on ultimate users of the facility is not fully understood. The ability of the physical environment to influence behaviors and to create an image is particularly apparent for service businesses such as hotels, restaurants, professional offices, banks, retail stores, and hospitals (Baker 1987; Bitner 1986; Booms and Bitner 1982; Kotler 1973; Shostack 1977; Upah and Fulton 1985; Zeithaml, Parasuraman, and Berry 1985).  Because the service generally is produced and consumed simultaneously, the consumer is “in the factory,” often experiencing the total service within the firm’s physical facility.

Le fait que les comportements des individus soit influencer ou impacter par les changements/ modifications physique autour d’eux nous renvoi au sensoriel. Les 5 sens sont le toucher, le gouts, l’odorat, l’ouïe, la vue. Chaque sens peut être impacter différemment par l’environnement physique. De plus, on se rend compte que les entreprises de services sont plus impacté par cela car que les entreprise de produits car le service est co-créer dans l’entreprise par le client et le personnel. De plus, il est simultanément consommer. Un service est intangible, indissociable, variable et périssable.

purchase, consumers commonly look for cues about the firm’s capabilities and quality (Berry and Clark 1986; Shostack 1977).

Research suggests that the physical setting may also influence the customer’s ultimate satisfaction with the service (Bitner 1990; Harrell, Hutt, and Anderson 1980).

in service organizations the same physical setting that communicates with and influences customers may affect employees of the firm (Baker, Berry, and Parasuraman 1988). Research in organizational behavior suggests that the physical setting can influence employee satisfaction, productivity, and motivation (e.g., Becker 1981; Davis 1984; Steele 1986; Sundstrom and Altman 1989; Sundstrom and Sundstrom 1986; Wineman 1986).

For example, in the Milliman experiments, music tempo was varied and the effect on a variety of consumer behaviors was measured

L’environnement physique impacte à la fois le consommateur/ client mais également l’employer. De plus comme il travaille ensemble pour co-créer ce service il est nécessaire que l’environnement physique impacte positivement les 2 parties. En effet, si l’employé est impacté négativement alors il influera de façon négative sur le consommateur et sur le service réalisé.

Because services generally are purchased and consumed simultaneously, and typically require direct human contact, customers and employees interact with each other within the organization’s physical facility. Ideally, therefore, the organization’s environment should support the needs and preferences of both service employees and customers simultaneously.

“The way the physical setting is created in organizations has barely been tapped as a tangible organizational resource” (Becker 1981, p. 130).

the physical setting can aid or hinder the accomplishment of both internal organizational goals and external marketing goals.

The physical surroundings are, in general, more important in service settings because customers as well as employees often experience the firm’s facility. However, not all service firms and industries are alike (Lovelock 1983; Schmenner 1986)

For interpersonal services, both organizational and marketing objectives could potentially be targeted through careful design of the servicescape. Even marketing goals such as relationship building (Crosby, Evans, and Cowles 1990) could be influenced by the design of the physical setting

That human behavior is influenced by the physical setting in which it occurs is essentially a truism. Interestingly, however, until the 1960s psychologists largely ignored the effects of physical setting in their attempts to predict and explain behavior. Since that time, a large and steadily growing body of literature within the field of environmental psychology has addressed the relationships between human beings and their built environments (for reviews of environmental psychology, see Darley and Gilbert 1985; Holahan 1986; Russell and Ward 1982; Stokols and Altman 1987)

à L’hôtellerie est considéré comme un service interpersonnel. Dans ce genre de service on remarque que des les relations entre les individus soit influencé en fonction de l’environnement physique qui les entoure. Ainsi, des rencontres peuvent être plus favorable sous certaines conditions.

Environmental psychologists suggest that individuals react to places with two general, and opposite, forms of behavior: approach and avoidance (Mehrabian and Russell 1974). Approach behaviors include all positive behaviors that might be directed at a particular place, such as desire to stay, explore, work, and affiliate (Mehrabian and Russell 1974). Avoidance behaviors reflect the opposite, in other words, a desire not to stay, explore, work, and affiliate.

Milliman (1982, 1986) found that the tempo of background music can affect traffic flow and gross receipts in both supermarket and restaurant settings.

As Figure 2 shows, the approach/avoidance behaviors of employees and customers are determined largely by individual intemal responses (cognitive, emotional, and physiological) to the environment. The three types of internal responses are discussed in greater detail subsequently. The basic assumption is that positive (negative) intemal responses lead to approach (avoidance) behaviors.

Bennett and Bennett (1970) state that “all social interaction is affected by the physical container in which it occurs.” They go on to suggest that the physical container affects the nature of social interaction in terms of the duration of interaction and the actual progression of events.

Les individus réagissent différemment à l’environnement physique qui les entourent. Leur comportement peut être positif ce qui est appelé « approach » ou de façon négative « avoidance ».  Ce comportement/ réaction va refléter l’expérience ressenti par le client lors de son séjour à l’hôtel par exemple.

Forgas (1979) suggests that environmental variables such as propinquity, seating arrangements, size, and flexibility can define the possibilities and limits of social episodes, such as those between and among customers and employees.

Behaviors such as small group interaction, friendship formation, participation, aggression, withdrawal, and helping have all been shown to be influenced by environmental conditions (Holahan 1982).

Examples are again abundant in actual service settings. Even casual observation of a Club Med facility confirms that the highly complex setting is designed to encourage social interaction among and between guests and employees. Seating arrangements and the food preparation process at Benihana restaurants similarly encourage interactions among total strangers, as well as contact between patrons and the Japanese chef who prepares their meals in full view.

Nous remarquons que des variables environnementales telles que la proximité, la disposition des sièges, la taille et la flexibilité peuvent définir les possibilités et les limites tels que celles entre les clients et les employés. Elles peuvent également  favorisé l’interaction entre les différents clients.

the perceived servicescape may elicit cognitive responses (Golledge 1987; Kaplan and Kaplan 1982; Rapoport 1982), influencing people’s beliefs about a place and their beliefs about the people and products found in that place. In that sense, the environment can be viewed as a form of nonverbal communication (Broadbent, Bunt, and Jencks 1980; Rapoport 1982), imparting meaning through what Ruesch and Kees (1956) called “object language.”

In addition to influencing cognitions, the perceived servicescape may elicit emotional responses that in turn influence behaviors. In a long stream of research, Mehrabian and Russell and their colleagues have programmatically explored emotional responses to environments (e.g., Mehrabian and Russell 1974; Russell and Lanius 1984; Russell and Pratt 1980; Russell and Snodgrass 1987). Through their research they have concluded that the emotion-eliciting qualities of environments are captured by two dimensions: pleasure-displeasure and degree of arousal

Research also suggests that emotional responses to the environment may be transferred to people and/or objects within the environment (Maslow and Mintz 1956; Mintz 1956; Obermiller and Bitner 1984).

Kaplan (1987) concluded that preference for or liking of a particular environment can be predicted by three environmental dimensions: complexity, mystery, and coherence

Cette influence de l’environnement physique sur les individus est une forme de communication non verbale. Elle peut, ainsi, susciter des réactions émotionnelles qui peuvent être capturé en fonction de 2 dimensions : le plaisir-déplaisir et le degré d’excitation. Ainsi ces rections émotionnelles peuvent influer le comportement des individu. Nous avons également pu voir que des réactions émotionnelles peuvent être transmise à d’autres individus ou a des objets. Enfin, ces réactions peuvent être prédites grâce à 3 variables : la complexité, le mystère et la cohérence.

The perceived servicescape may also affect people in purely physiological ways. Noise that is too loud may cause physical discomfort, the temperature of a room may cause people to shiver or perspire, the air quality may make it difficult to breathe, and the glare of lighting may decrease ability to see and cause physical pain.

A complex mix of environmental features constitute the servicescape and influence internal responses and behaviors. Specifically, the dimensions of the physical surroundings include all of the objective physical factors that can be controlled by the firm to enhance (or constrain) employee and customer actions.

Many items in the physical environment serve as explicit or implicit signals that communicate about the place to its users (Becker 1977, 1981; Davis 1984; Wener 1985; Wineman 1982). Signs displayed on the exterior and interior of a structure are examples of explicit communicators

Signs have even been found to reduce perceived crowding and stress in a jail lobby setting (Wener and Kaminoff 1982).

Other environmental objects may communicate less directly than signs, giving implicit cues to users about the meaning of the place and norms and expectations for behavior in the place. Quality of materials used in construction, artwork, presence of certificates and Photographs on walls, floor coverings, and personal Objects displayed in the environment can all communicate symbolic meaning and create an overall aesthetic impression.

Le Servicescape est un concept, développé par Booms et Bitner, qui montre l’impact de l’environnement physique dans lequel un processus de service a lieu. Booms and Bitner definissent le servicescape comme “the environment in which the service is assembled and in which the seller and customer interact, combined with tangible commodities that facilitate performance or communication of the service” (Booms and Bitner, 1981, p. 36). Les preuves physiques peuvent être en extérieures (paysage, conception extérieure, signalisation, parking, environnement environnant) mais aussi en intérieures (conception et décoration intérieures, équipement, signalisation, aménagement, qualité de l’air, température et ambiance)

Le Servicescape peut affecter un individu du manière physiologie (un bruit qui l’irrite, une odeur qui lui donne la nausée…).

Des éléments de l’environnement physique/ servicescape  sont des signes qui serve de communication pour les individus. Par exemple : le symbole toilette dans un lieux public ou la direction à prendre pour aller vers la salle de fitness. Ces signaux vont impacter l’expérience clients s’il sont mal positionner ou mal compris par l’individu. De plus, ces éléments peuvent faire ressentir à l’individu quel est la qualité du service qu’il va recevoir.  

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Making Sense in Marketing: Sensory Strategies for International Quick Service Restaurants Mohammed Abdul Azeem and Sharafat Hussain MANTHAN: Journal of Commerce and Management, Volume 5, Issue 2, Jul-Dec 2018

Résumé :

Given the importance of ‘Sensory Marketing’ in the field of QSR (Quick Service Restaurant) industry, the objective of this paper is to identify if sensory factors influence customers’ selection of a QSR. Data of 1600 respondents were collected from four international QSRs (KFC, McDonald, Domino’s and Subway) across four cities (Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad) of India. Factor analysis revealed three components, namely: Sensory influence, Promotional influence and Monetary influence, due to their high factor loadings. Further, Multiple regression analysis indicated that the Sensory factor contributed significantly to the model followed by Promotional and Monetary Factors. The study concludes that Sensory Factor is the most influencing factor for customers to select a QSR contrary to the general belief of Promotional and Monetary factors. This study adds to theoretical insights of the Sensory marketing literature and also recommends its practical implications to the marketing managers of the QSRs.

Compte tenu de l’importance du «marketing sensoriel» dans le secteur des restaurants à service rapide, l’objectif de ce document est d’identifier si des facteurs sensoriels influencent la sélection du QSR par les clients. Les données de 1600 répondants ont été recueillies auprès de quatre QSR internationaux (KFC, McDonald, Domino’s et Subway) dans quatre villes indiennes (Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore et Hyderabad). L’analyse factorielle a révélé trois composantes, à savoir: l’influence sensorielle, l’influence promotionnelle et l’influence monétaire, en raison de leur forte charge factorielle. De plus, une analyse de régression multiple a indiqué que le facteur sensoriel contribuait de manière significative au modèle suivi des facteurs promotionnels et monétaires. L’étude conclut que le facteur sensoriel est le facteur le plus déterminant pour que les clients choisissent un QSR contrairement aux idées reçues sur les facteurs promotionnels et monétaires. Cette étude complète les connaissances théoriques de la littérature sur le marketing sensoriel et recommande également ses implications pratiques aux responsables marketing des QSR.

Mots clefs :

Sensory marketing; Sensory influence; Quick service restaurant; Multisensory strategies; Experiential marketing; Fast food restaurants.

Développement :

 Atwal and Williams (2009) The traditional mass marketing is slowly disappearing and are being replaced by small markets with numerous segments, where individualization and customisation of products and services are key.

One consequence is that traditional mass marketing, which once dominated the advertising arena, is being questioned more than ever before in the past as a profitable and productive means to reach customers (Belk, 2008).

Of the 5 human senses, the sense of sight has so far dominated advertising practice (Pashler, 1999). There’s without a doubt that the other human senses – odour, taste, sound, and touch – were ignored for quite a very long time, regardless of their significance when somebody considers and determines around a product or brand.

five human senses are today receiving increased attention (Katz, 1999).

Sensory marketing is not the same as mass or relationship marketing, because it has its long lasting impression in the brain of the individual.

Sensory advertising is distinguished by mass and relationship marketing by being its origin in the 5 human senses. It’s from the human mark that mental streams, processes, and psychological reactions take place that results in someone’s sensory experience (Peck and Shu, 2009).

Le marketing traditionnelle est de plus en plus remplacé par un nouvelle forme qu’est la personnalisation.

Le sensoriel est utilisé dans le marketing et plus particulièrement la vue avec la publicité. Les autres sens ont longtemps été oublié mais aujourd’hui, les marketeurs y font plus attention lors de la mise en place de leurs stratégies.  

Le marketing sensoriel est différent du marketing de masse mais aussi du marketing relationnel, car l’individu va se remémorer de façon durable l’expérience et cela est  imprégné dans le cerveau des individus.

The challenge then before entrepreneurs is to know how to stimulate the senses of the consumers in order to provide them with consumption experience that’s perceived to be memorable.

This expertise is vital to changing customer behaviour into the goal to buy, which leads to increased sales, profitability and market share. This research concentrates on how sensory advertising influence customer selection of a fast food chain restaurant.

In accordance with the Hultén (2015) model in Figure 2, the task of marketers is to create sensorial approaches that stimulate the senses by producing various sensations. These sensations rotate around the atmospheric, sound, visual, gastronomic and tactile spheres. All of them coalesce to create a multi-sensory brand experience that is vital to creating customer equity. All of them help create a multi-sensory brand experience which is crucial to creating customer equity and loyalty.

According to Bennett (2009) Servicescape includes distinct environmental dimensions that are defined as ambient conditions, space/function and signs, symbols & artefacts. These measurements consist of both interior and exterior design, including the surrounding environment in addition to layout, gear and sound, music, odour, lighting all that were identified as factors influencing client’s behaviour.

Le but, afin d’avoir une augmentation des ventes, de la rentabilité et des parts de marché, est de savoir comment stimuler les sens des consommateurs afin de leur offrir une expérience de consommation perçue comme étant mémorable.

Afin de stimuler les sens il faut produire diverses sensations aux individus afin de créer une expérience client multi-sensorielle qui peut ainsi devenir inoubliable. Ceci peut différentier une entreprise de la concurrence et permet a un individu de devenir un client fidèle.

Le servicescape défini que les modifications de l’environnement physique impact les individus et leur comportements. Elle comprend la conception intérieure et extérieure, y compris sur l’environnement, ainsi que sur la disposition, l’équipement et le son, la musique, les odeurs et l’éclairage, facteurs qui influent sur le comportement du client.

From the above literature review, it is seen that people perceive their environment through their perceptions. Senses play a major part in influencing their behavior and in their evaluation of the experience.

The objective of the study is to identify the key sensory factors that influence customers’ selection of a fast food chain restaurant.

Ho: Sensory factors do not influence customers towards the selection of a fast food restaurant.

This means that the study has identified three factors influencing the customer’s selection of a fast food restaurant – First influencing factor of restaurant selection is Sensory Factors, the second influencing factor is Monetary Factor and the third influencing factor is Promotional Factor.

According to the factor analysis of the influencing factors, three components, namely: Sensory influence, Promotional influence and Monetary influence emerged as important factors

Les perceptions et les sens des individus jouent un rôle majeur dans l’influence de leur comportement et dans leur évaluation de l’expérience et, ainsi, de leur fidélité à la marque ou non.

l’étude a identifié trois facteurs influençant le choix du client d’un restaurant de restauration rapide: le facteur déterminant du choix du restaurant est le facteur sensoriel, le second facteur est le facteur monétaire et le troisième facteur est le facteur promotionnel. Ainsi nous pouvons retenir que le facteur sensoriel est très important sur le choix de l’individu ainsi que le facteur monétaire te le facteur promotionnel. Et nous pouvons utiliser cette étude comme point de départ sur le secteur de l’hôtellerie qui est également un secteur de service au même titre que la restauration rapide.

Bibliographie :

Arnheim, R. (1971). Visual thinking. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing by Vargo, S.L. & Lusch, R.F (2017).

Résumé :

Marketing inherited a model of exchange from economics, which had a dominant logic based on the exchange of “goods,” which usually are manufactured output. The dominant logic focused on tangible resources, embedded value, and transactions. Over the past several decades, new perspectives have emerged that have a revised logic focused on intangible resources, the cocreation of value, and relationships. The authors believe that the new perspectives are converging to form a new dominant logic for marketing, one in which service provision rather than goods is fundamental to economic exchange. The authors explore this evolving logic and the corresponding shift in perspective for marketing scholars, marketing practitioners, and marketing educators.

  • Le marketing a hérité d’un modèle d’échange de l’économie, qui avait une logique dominante basée sur l’échange de « marchandises », qui sont généralement des productions manufacturières. La logique dominante portait sur les ressources matérielles, la valeur incorporée et les transactions. Au cours des dernières décennies, de nouvelles perspectives ont émergé qui ont une logique révisée, axée sur les ressources intangibles, la cocréation de valeur et les relations. Les auteurs estiment que les nouvelles perspectives convergent pour former une nouvelle logique dominante pour la commercialisation, l’une dans laquelle la prestation de services, plutôt que les marchandises, est fondamentale pour l’échange économique. Les auteurs explorent cette logique évolutive et le changement de perspective correspondant pour les spécialistes du marketing, les praticiens du marketing et les éducateurs en marketing.

Mots clefs :

Services marketing; goods marketing ; marketing institutions ; Customer satisfaction

Développement :

The formal study of marketing focused at first on the distribution and exchange of commodities and manufactured products and featured a foundation in economics (Marshall 1927; Shaw 1912; Smith 1904). The first marketing scholars directed their attention toward commodities exchange (Copeland 1923), the marketing institutions that made goods available and arranged for possession (Nystrom 1915; Weld 1916), and the functions that needed to be performed to facilitate the exchange of goods through marketing institutions (Cherington 1920; Weld 1917).

By the early 1950s, the functional school began to morph into the marketing management school, which was characterized by a decision-making approach to managing the marketing functions and an overarching focus on the customer (Drucker 1954; Levitt 1960; McKitterick 1957). McCarthy (1960) and Kotler (1967) characterized marketing as a decision-making activity directed at satisfying the customer at a profit by targeting a market and then making optimal decisions on the marketing mix, or the “4 P’s.”

Gummesson (1995, pp. 250–51, emphasis added) states the following: Customers do not buy goods or services: [T]hey buy offerings which render services which create value.… The traditional division between goods and services is long outdated. It is not a matter of redefining services and seeing them from a customer perspective; activities render services, things render services. The shift in focus to services is a shift from the means and the producer perspective to the utilization and the customer perspective.

(Un résumé de cette évolution au cours des 100 dernières années est présenté dans le tableau 1 et la figure 1)

Briefly, marketing has moved from a goods-dominant view, in which tangible output and discrete transactions were central, to a service-dominant view, in which intangibility, exchange processes, and relationships are central.

It is worthwhile to note that the service-centered view should not be equated with (1) the restricted, traditional conceptualizations that often treat services as a residual (that which is not a tangible good; e.g., Rathmell 1966); (2) something offered to enhance a good (value-added services); or (3) what have become classified as services industries, such as health care, government, and education. Rather, we define services as the application of specialized competences (knowledge and skills) through deeds, processes, and performances for the benefit of another entity itself.

1950–1980: Marketing Management •Business should be customer focused (Drucker 1954; McKitterick 1957) •Value “determined” in marketplace (Levitt 1960) •Marketing is a decision-making and problem-solving function (Kotler 1967; McCarthy 1960) : Customers do not buy things but need or want fulfillment. Everyone in the firm must be focused on the customer because the firm’s only purpose is to create a satisfied customer. Identification of the functional responses to the changing environment that provide competitive advantage through differentiation begins to shift toward value in use.

The marketing literature rarely mentioned “immaterial products” or “services,” and when it did, it mentioned them only as “aids to the production and marketing of goods” (Converse 1921, p. vi; see Fisk, Brown, and Bitner 1993).

On remarque que pendant des années, le marketing des services n’était pas reconnu en tant que tel mais était seulement reconnu comme une aide apportée au marketing de biens autrement dit une prestation qui pousserait à l’achat de biens tangibles.

The service-centered view can be stated as follows: 1. Identify or develop core competences, the fundamental knowledge and skills of an economic entity that represent potential competitive advantage. 2. Identify other entities (potential customers) that could benefit from these competences. 3. Cultivate relationships that involve the customers in developing customized, competitively compelling value propositions to meet specific needs. 4. Gauge marketplace feedback by analyzing financial performance from exchange to learn how to improve the firm’s offering to customers and improve firm performance.

The service-centered view of marketing is customercentric (Sheth, Sisodia, and Sharma 2000) and market driven (Day 1999). This means more than simply being consumer oriented; it means collaborating with and learning from customers and being adaptive to their individual and dynamic needs. A service-centered dominant logic implies that value is defined by and cocreated with the consumer rather than embedded in output.

C’est dans cette optique que la notion d’expérience client et de satisfaction client prend tout son sens et découle de l’apprentissage des besoins clients. Le consommateur est un acteur principal dans le marketing des services.

Haeckel (1999) observes successful firms moving from practicing a “make-and-sell” strategy to a “sense-and-respond” strategy. Day (1999, p. 70) argues for thinking in terms of self-reinforcing “value cycles” rather than linear value chains. In the servicecentered view of marketing, firms are in a process of continual hypothesis generation and testing. Outcomes (e.g., financial) are not something to be maximized but something to learn from as firms try to serve customers better and improve their performance.

Six differences between the goods- and service-centered dominant logic, all centered on the distinction between operand and operant resources, are presented in Table 2. The six attributes and our eight foundational premises (FPs) help present the patchwork of the emerging dominant logic.

Frederic Bastiat criticized the political economists’view that value was tied only to tangible objects. For Bastiat (1860, p. 40), the foundations of economics were people who have “wants” and who seek “satisfactions.” Although a want and its satisfaction are specific to each person, the effort required is often provided by others. For Bastiat (1964, pp. 161–62), “the great economic law is this: Services are exchanged for services…. It is trivial, very commonplace; it is, nonetheless, the beginning, the middle, and the end of economic science.” He argued (1860, p. 43) the following: “[I]t is in fact to this faculty … to work the one for the other; it is this transmission of efforts, this exchange of services [this emphasis added], with all the infinite and involved combinations to which it gives rise … which constitutes Economic Science, points out its origin, and determines its limits.” Therefore, value was considered the comparative appreciation of reciprocal skills or services that are exchanged to obtain utility; value meant “value in use.”

Norris (1941, p. 136) was one of the first scholars to recognize that people want goods because they provide services.

Par exemple, on ne souhaite pas une ampoule connectée / intelligente dans notre chambre d’hôtel juste pour éclairer la pièce mais pour créer une ambiance, qui plus est, qui nous ressemble. Cette ampoule nous permet donc de personnaliser l’ambiance de notre chambre selon notre humeur ou nos envies et apporte un réel service, bien plus que de la lumière.

In addition to their direct service provision, the appliances serve as platforms for meeting higher-order needs (Rifkin 2000). Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2000, p. 84) refer to the appliances as “artifacts, around which customers have experiences” (see also Pine and Gilmore 1999). Gutman (1982, p. 60) has pointed out that products are “means” for reaching “end-states,” or “valued states of being, such as happiness, security, and accomplishment.”

From a service-centered view of marketing with a heavy focus on continuous processes, the consumer is always involved in the production of value. Even with tangible goods, production does not end with the manufacturing process; production is an intermediary process.

Le produit fournit un service mais il faut aussi que le client apprenne à l’utiliser pour pouvoir « profiter » de ce service, sinon il n’y a pas de bénéfices avec ce produit.

Likewise, Gronroos (2000, pp. 24–25; emphasis in original) states, Value for customers is created throughout the relationship by the customer, partly in interactions between the customer and the supplier or service provider. The focus is not on products but on the customers’ value-creating processes where value emerges for customers and is perceived by them.

Interactivity, integration, customization, and coproduction are the hallmarks of a service-centered view and its inherent focus on the customer and the relationship.

Bibliographie :

Bastiat, Fredric (1860), Harmonies of Political Economy, Patrick S. Sterling, trans. London: J. Murray. ——— (1964), Selected Essays on Political Economy, (1848), Seymour Cain, trans., George. B. de Huszar, ed. Reprint, Princeton, NJ : D. Van Nordstrand.

Cherington, Paul T. (1920), The Elements of Marketing. New York: Macmillan

Converse, Paul D. (1921), Marketing Methods and Politics. New York: Prentice Hall.

Copeland, Melvin T. (1923), Marketing Problems. New York: A.W. Shaw

Day, George (1999), The Market Driven Organization: Understanding, Attracting, and Keeping Valuable Customers. New York: The Free Press.

Drucker, Peter F. (1954), The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Row.

Fisk, Raymond P., Stephen W. Brown, and Mary Jo Bitner (1993), “Tracking the Evolution of the Services Marketing Literature,” Journal of Retailing, 69 (Spring), 61–103.

Gronroos, Christian (2000), Service Management and Marketing: A Customer Relationship Management Approach. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Gummesson, Evert (1995), “Relationship Marketing: Its Role in the Service Economy,” in Understanding Services Management, William J. Glynn and James G. Barnes, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 244–68.

Gutman, Jonathan (1982) “A Means–End Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes,” Journal of Marketing, 46 (Spring), 60–72.

Haeckel, Stephen H. (1999), Adaptive Enterprise: Creating and Leading Sense-and-Respond Organizations. Boston: Harvard School of Business.

Kotler, Philip (1967), Marketing Management Analysis, Planning, and Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Levitt, Theodore (1960), “Marketing Myopia,” Harvard Business Review, 38 (July–August), 26–44, 173–81.

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McCarthy, E. Jerome (1960), Basic Marketing, A Managerial Approach. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.

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Norris, Ruby Turner (1941), The Theory of Consumer’s Demand. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Nystrom, Paul (1915), The Economics of Retailing, Vols. 1 and 2. New York: Ronald Press.

Pine, B. Joseph and James H. Gilmore (1999), The Experience Economy: Work Is Theater and Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press

Prahalad, C.K. and and Venkatram Ramaswamy (2000), “Co-opting Customer Competence,” Harvard Business Review, 78 (January– February), 79–87.

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The Effect of Mere Touch on Perceived Ownership by Peck, J., & Shu, S. B. (2009).

Résumé :

This research finds that merely touching an object results in an increase in perceived ownership of that object. For nonowners, or buyers, perceived ownership can be increased with either mere touch or with imagery encouraging touch. Perceived ownership can also be increased through touch for legal owners, or sellers of an object. We also explore valuation of an object and conclude that it is jointly influenced by both perceived ownership and by the valence of the touch experience. We discuss the implications of this research for online and traditional retailers as well as for touch research and endowment effect research.

  • Cette recherche montre que le simple fait de toucher un objet entraîne une augmentation de la propriété perçue de cet objet. Pour les non-propriétaires ou les acheteurs, la propriété perçue peut être augmentée avec un simple toucher ou avec un toucher qui encourage l’image. La propriété perçue peut également être augmentée par le toucher pour les propriétaires légaux ou les vendeurs d’un objet. Nous explorons également l’évaluation d’un objet et concluons qu’il est conjointement influencé à la fois par la propriété perçue et par la valence de l’expérience tactile. Nous discutons des implications de cette recherche pour les détaillants en ligne et traditionnels, ainsi que pour la recherche tactile et la recherche sur les effets de dotation.

Mots clefs :

Touch, Sense, Ownership, experience, purchase, Marketing

Développement :

2003, the Illinois state attorney general’s office issued a warning for holiday shoppers to be cautious of retailers who encourage them to hold objects and imagine the objects as their own when shopping. The basis of this warning was presumably that the combination of physically holding the object and ownership imagery may lead to unplanned or unnecessary purchases.

Research on the sense of touch or haptics has increased in the marketing literature, possibly encouraged by the rise of online shopping where marketers are interested in how to compensate consumers for touch when it is unavailable (Peck and Childers 2007). Previous research in marketing has examined product category differences and found that some product categories encourage touch more than others (e.g., Grohmann, Spangenberg, and Sprott 2007; McCabe and Nowlis 2003; Peck and Childers 2003a). The sense of touch excels at obtaining texture, hardness, temperature, and weight information (Klatzky and Lederman 1992, 1993).

consumers will be more motivated to touch the product prior to purchase to ascertain specific attribute information (please see Peck [2009] for a review of haptic research in marketing)

the experience of touching a pleasantly valenced object can influence persuasion, even if the touch element provides no information regarding the product (Peck and Wiggins 2006)

L’expérience sensorielle joue un réelle rôle dans le choix de l’achat mais également dans le choix entre différentes marque. Nous avons pu voir que le toucher était particulièrement important dans l’acte d’achat. Les consommateurs seront plus motivés à toucher le produit avant de l’acheter pour vérifier les informations d’attributs spécifiques. De plus, l’expérience de toucher un objet et si la sensation est agréablement validé, cette dernière peut avoir une influence sur la persuasion, même si l’élément tactile ne fournit aucune information sur le produit.

Twenty-five years of research has shown that consumers’ valuation of an object increases once they have taken ownership of it, a finding commonly known as the endowment effect (Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler 1990; Knetsch and Sinden 1984; Thaler 1980)

Our primary research motivation is to understand how merely touching an object influences perceived ownership and the valuation of an object. Previous work has established that the opportunity to touch can increase unplanned purchasing (Peck and Childers 2006) and also the willingness to donate time or money to a non profit organization (Peck and Wiggins 2006) but has not considered its effects on  ownership or valuation

Individuals may feel ownership of an object without actually owning it. Psychological ownership (Pierce et al. 2003) is distinct from legal ownership and is characterized by the feeling that something is “mine.” For example, employees in an organization may develop feelings of ownership toward the organization (Pierce, Kostova, and Dirks 2001, 2003)

Previous literature has suggested concepts similar to perceived ownership, such as anticipatory possession or pseudo-endowment (Ariely and Simonson 2003; Carmon, Wertenbroch, and Zeelenberg 2003)

Sen and Johnson (1997) did not manipulate perceived ownership of an object but did manipulate possession. They used coupons for restaurants and found that having a coupon for a product influenced preference for that option.

Nous avons pu remarquer que la valeur d’un objet augmente une fois qu’il en est devenu propriétaire, constat connu sous le nom d’effet de dotation. De plus, la possibilité de toucher peut augmenter les achats non planifiés.

D’une autre façon, les individus peuvent se sentir propriétaires d’un objet sans le posséder réellement : la propriété psychologique. C’est le sentiment que quelque chose est «mien». Par exemple, les employés d’une organisation peuvent développer un sentiment de propriété à l’égard de l’organisation ou les client d’une marque peuvent développer un sentiment de propriété à l’égard de l’organisation. Un autre exemple, le football quand les supporteurs disent « mon équipe a gagné ». Il ressente un sentiment de propriété envers l’organisation.

Overall, it was found in study 1 that for buyers, where actual ownership was absent, object touch led to greater perceived ownership (hypothesis 1), which in turn led to higher valuation of the object, among individuals not instructed to use imagery. In addition, perceived ownership and valuation of an object were both increased by having buyers use ownership imagery

The first two studies found that mere touch can increase perceived ownership for buyers or nonowners (study 1) and for sellers or owners (study 2). In both studies, touch also increased the valuation of the object

Endowment effect research also provides some evidence that receiving objects perceived as unpleasant leads to a negative affective reaction toward the object, as evidenced by lower valuation. For example, Lerner, Small, and Loewenstein (2004) found that an individual’s negative emotional state (such as disgust or sadness) can lower valuation for endowed objects, and work on possession loss aversion (Brenner et al. 2007) shows lower selling prices for negative items.

Study 3 supported our predictions by finding that the ability to directly touch an object with positive sensory feedback increased perceived ownership, affective reaction, and the valuation of the object in a traditional endowment effect experiment. In addition, study 3 directly measured both perceived ownership and affective reactions toward the object and revealed that these two constructs mediate the effects of touch on valuation

It was found across all four studies that touch leads to increased perceived ownership, and this increase in perceived ownership then leads to an increase in valuation of an object if the object provides neutral or positive sensory feedback

Finally, our research supports Captain Jean-Luc Picard’s claim that “For humans, touch can connect you to an object in a very personal way.” In four studies, we found that mere touch does connect a person to an object by increasing the feeling of ownership of the object.

Nous avons remarqué que lorsque la propriété réelle était absente, le contact avec un objet entraînait une perception accrue de la propriété. De plus, le simple toucher peut accroître la perception de propriété pour les acheteurs ou les non propriétaires et pour les vendeurs ou les propriétaires mais également connecte une personne à un objet en augmentant le sentiment. de propriété de l’objet.

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Création d’une expérience mémorable en ligne par les marques horlogères de luxe

Bashutkina M., Courvoisier F. (2016) Création d’une expérience mémorable en ligne par les marques horlogères de luxe, International Marketing Trends Conference.

Idée dominante : Cet article montre que les internautes attendent d’un site Internet d’une marque de montres de luxe qu’il véhicule l’ADN et les valeurs de la marque, il doit retranscrire l’image et l’univers de la marque, ce que Okonkwo[1] appelle la « luxemosphere » soit la reproduction en ligne de l’univers splendide et exceptionnelle de la maison de luxe. C’est pourquoi les internautes s’attendent à vivre une expérience originale, inédite en adéquation avec l’univers de la marque. La création d’une expérience en ligne stimulant les sens et les émotions de l’internaute occupe donc une place importante dans la stratégie marketing et communication des maisons horlogères de luxe. Les marques font donc appel au marketing expérientiel, un concept élaboré par Holbrook et Hirschman[2] qui s’appuie sur une stimulation multi-sensorielle et sur la valorisation de récits, de valeurs et des émotions dans le but de renforcer l’attrait et l’intérêt du consommateur pour la marque. Pour mettre en place une stratégie de marketing expérientiel en ligne, les marques peuvent s’appuyer sur le schéma des modules expérientiels stratégiques de Schmidt[3] qui mettent en évidence l’importance des couleurs, du design, des vidéos, de la musique, de l’interactivité du site, de la création d’univers et la mise en avant des valeurs et de la vision de la marque.





[1] Okonkwo U. (2010) Luxury Online : styles, systems, strategies, Hampshire (UK) : Palgrave MacMillan.

[2] Hirschman E. C., Holbrook M. B. (1982) The experiential aspects of consumption : consumer fantasies, feelings and fun, Journal of Consumer Research, 9, September, 132-140.

[3] Schmidt B. H. (1999) The experience economy : Work is Theatre and every Business a Stage, Boston (MA) : Harvard Business School.

Effet de l’hyperchoix sur le consommateur et effet modérateur de la marque : une application au cas de l’horlogerie bijouterie

Fady A., Larceneux F., Rieunier S., (2007). Effet de l’hyperchoix sur le consommateur et effet modérateur de la marque : une application au cas de l’horlogerie bijouterie, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 22(4), p43-57.

Idée dominante : Dans le cas de l’horlogerie joaillerie, le consommateur sera plus attiré par une vitrine présentant peu de produits. Néanmoins, si la vitrine met en avant une marque, alors le client sera davantage attiré par la marque en elle-même que les produits et le fait de présenter une plus grande quantité de modèles en vitrine ne sera pas un frein pour l’intérêt du client. En est-il de même sur Internet ? Quel est l’effet de l’hyperchoix sur le consommateur et sur sa décision d’achat dans le cas d’un site mobile de joaillerie de luxe ?

The role of Security, Design and Content factors on customer trust in mobile commerce

Ebrahimi L., Ibrahim O., Mirabi V., Nilashi M., Zare M., (2015). The role of Security, Design and Content factors on customer trust in mobile commerce, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 26, p57-69.

Idée dominante :

La confiance joue aujourd’hui un rôle très important dans l’univers d’Internet et de l’e-commerce[1] où acquérir la confiance du consommateur est particulièrement complexe dans cet environnement incertain. La confiance a alors une grande influence sur le comportement en ligne et la décision d’achat des consommateurs[2], d’autant plus pour le m-commerce qui reste encore nouveau et incertain dans l’esprit des consommateurs[3]. Gagner la confiance de ces clients, permet donc à un site marchand mobile de créer une relation sur le long terme et une forme de fidélité chez le client[4]. Plusieurs facteurs influencent directement la confiance qu’un utilisateur a envers un site m-commerce : la sécurité (les caractéristiques de sécurité, le respect de la politique de confidentialité, la sécurité de paiement en ligne, la certification du site), le design (la facilité de navigation, la personnalisation du site, l’ergonomie, la capacité à utiliser différentes applications multimédias) et le contenu (pertinent, juste, complet et qui se renouvelle). Parmi ces trois principaux facteurs, la sécurité est le facteur qui a le plus d’influence dans la confiance de l’utilisateur envers un site mobile.

Note d’intérêt : La sécurité, le design et le contenu d’un site mobile ont une influence significative dans la confiance de l’utilisateur envers un site mobile et donc impacteraient sa décision d’achat d’une pièce de joaillerie sur un site mobile.

[1] Pavlou P.A., (2003) Consumer acceptance of electronic commerce: integrating trust and risk with the technology acceptance model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7(3), p101–134.

[2] Gefen D., Heart T.H., (2006) On the need to include national culture as a central issue in e-commerce trust beliefs. Journal of Global Information Management, 14(4), p1–30.

[3] Chong A.Y.L., Chan F.T.S., Ooi K.B. (2011) Predicting consumer decisions to adopt M-commerce. Cross country empirical examination between China and Malaysia. Decisions Support System, 53(1), p34–43.

[4] Jarvenpaa S.L., Tractinsky N., Vitale M. (2000) Consumer trust in an internet store. Information Technology and Management, 1(1/2), p45–71.

Carefully choose your (payment) partner: How payment provider reputation influences m-commerce transactions

Hess T., Köster A., Matt C., (2015). Carefully choose your (payment) partner: How payment provider reputation influences m-commerce transactions, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 15(1), p26-37.

Idée dominante : Lors d’un achat en ligne, un consommateur doit délivrer des informations personnelles et financières au commerçant détenant le site mobile et à une tierce partie qui est le service de paiement par lequel le client est redirigé au moment de la transaction. La réputation du site marchand et la confiance que lui apporte le client sont des éléments très importants dans la décision d’achat sur mobile[1], mais cette étude montre également que la réputation de la tierce partie, le service de paiement peut influencer positivement celle du site marchand, diminuer la perception de risque chez le consommateur et donc encourager la décision d’achat sur mobile. Dans le cas d’un vendeur encore peu connu, une start-up ou une marque qui vient de se lancer dans le m-commerce, se doter d’un service de paiement mobile avec une bonne réputation peut être un véritable atout car cela a un impact très positif dans l’esprit du consommateur, un effet rassurant qui va encourager le consommateur à conclure sa transaction sur le site m-commerce[2]. Au contraire, pour un vendeur mobile qui a déjà une bonne réputation dans l’esprit des consommateurs, le fait de se doter d’un service de paiement de bonne réputation n’augmentera pas davantage le nombre d’adhérents au m-commerce car ceux-ci ont déjà été convaincus et font déjà confiance au site marchand. C’est intéressant pour les maisons qui se lancent dans le m-commerce et qui proposent des produits assez coûteux, de se doter de site de paiement de très bonne réputation pour obtenir la confiance de leurs clients qui peuvent être d’autant plus sceptiques.

Note d’intérêt : La réputation et la confiance envers le site marchand et le site de paiement mobile ont une influence importante sur la décision d’utilisation et d’achat sur mobile ou tablette. Nous verrons dans une autre étude[3] que la confiance envers un site peut être influencée par la sécurité, le design et le contenu.



[1] Jarvenpaa S.L., Tractinsky N., Vitale M., (2000) Consumer trust in an Internet store. Information Technology and Management, 1(1/2), p45–71.

[2] Chandra S., Srivastava S.C., Theng Y.-L., (2010) Evaluating the role of trust in consumer adoption of mobile payment systems: an empirical analysis. Communications of the Association for Information Systems 27(1), p561–588.

[3] Ebrahimi L., Ibrahim O., Mirabi V., Nilashi M., Zare M., (2015). The role of Security, Design and Content factors on customer trust in mobile commerce, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 26, p57-69.